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Lecture

ANTHROP 2PA3 Lecture Notes - Jacques Boucher De Crèvecœur De Perthes, Stonehenge, William Stukeley


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 2PA3
Professor
Andy Roddick

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Labs start Thursday Sept 22 in KTH B122
Final exam cumulative but stressing post mid term
Definition: Way of seeing and learning about past human cultures through the analysis of material
remains in their temporal and spatial context
Different archaeologies, different histories
Records, texts
Spend a lot of time learning ancient languages
(Prehistorians) Britain
Prehistoric Archaeology
Anthropological Archaeology
Bruce Trigger
Is behaviour (what people do)
Is a system of meaning (what people think)
Is learned, shared, patterned. Not rational, but rationalizing and dynamic
Structures and is structured by human action in the material world
Cultural
Linguistics
Biological
Archaeology
4 fields of American Anthropology
Franz Boaz
Human Culture
Physical traces of human action in the world
Artifacts: learned and cognitively structures behaviour
Patterning = cultural behaviour
Archaeologists reconstruct these patterns to tell (empirically constrained) stories of the
past
Material Remains
Prehistory?
Sites with no written records
Ancient history and people without history
A static timeless past?
Diachronic perspectives at macroscale
Synchronic perspective at a microscale
Study of cultural change:
History represents <1%
As a historical science
Collect data about moments or series of events
*But no predictive laws
Archaeologists deal with the complexities of time
Historic archaeology: written records
Excluded pasts: "people without history"
Selective representation of the past
3 radical ideas
Antiquarian Period:
Archaeology and recent history?
Temporal Context
What is Archaeology?
Introduction Lecture
September-03-11
8:38 PM
Anthropology 2PA3 Page 1

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3 radical ideas
3 scientific revolutions
Development of anthropology
Social evolution in anthropology
Systematic approaches
There is NOT ONE Anthropological Archaeology…
Minority
Academic: justification for research based on research questions and granting agencies
Represents >90% of archaeology today
Preserving prehistory on a day-to-day basis
Public: cultural resource management field (CRM)
...there is both academic and public (CRM)
What are you doing, why do you think your doing that
Emphasizes the speakers (or culture member's) understanding of what they do and why
Emic: insiders perspective
Emphasizes the outside 'scientific' view and explanation for behaviour
Christmas: to maintain solidarity, cohesiveness, relieve tensions
Etic: outsiders perspective
Emic vs Etic
How do you know that’s an artefact not a rock
Depositional theories
Low range theories
What was society like in the past
What was the economic/political association like
High range
How we link stones and bones to social processes
Middle range
We use (and fight about) theories
Both small scale and processes over a large region
Multiscalar
1.
Human life is about social relationships
All places and all times there are social relationships that people maintain
Mutualistic
2.
Short history, but in this short period of time is has spread globally
Wider global significance
What it means to be human
Globally Focused
3.
These knowledge's of past are powerful
Producing knowledge about the past that can be used in a variety of ways
Reflexive
4.
Four characteristics of Archaeology Today
This is not just abstract knowledge about societies. It is about discovery, about surprises and
about thinking about 'things' lives, societies and ourselves in new critical ways
We dig, find and interpret stuff!
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Speculative, exploratory
Antiquarian
Charting historical sequences through time
Culture history
Scientific, 'laws of human behaviour'
Processual/new Archaeology
Post-Processual/Processual Plus/Interpretive
Our Self-Proclaimed periods
Speculative phase of the discipline
Archaeology is a product of radical intellectualism and cultural developments in Europe
during the 16th-18th centuries (renaissance and Enlightenment)
Antiquarianism: 1500s to 1850
Humans are part of NATURE and subject to its LAWs AND CONDITIONS
Observation, experiment, analogy
Laws and conditions discovered through rational inquiry
Radical idea 1
Material conditions of human existence differ significantly across space and have changed
through time
Riches of material culture
Columbus discovering America
Radical Idea 2
Recognition of a Pre-roman past
Cabinets of curiosity were the first museums
Nationalist antiquarian societies
Recognition of stone tools as human artifacts
Material remains could be used to document material conditions in the past
Radical Idea 3
Roman temple?
Couldn’t have been built by 'savages'
1655 - Inigo Jones
Built by druids
Magnetic north
Caught popular attention
1687-1765 - William Stukeley
Stone Henge
Several conceptual and methodological advancements in the 18th-19th century were critical
to the development of Archaeology
Made possible the systematic study of material remains of past human societies in their
temporal and spatial contexts
Emergence of a discipline
The evolution battles begin
Earth was created in 4004 BC based on the bible
Usher - 1650
Geologist
Fond of studying the surface of the earth
Recorded everything meticulously
Long term slow processes occurring
Hutton
Usher vs Hutton:
Catastrophism
Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism
History of Archaeology
Part 1
September-13-11
8:28 AM
Anthropology 2PA3 Page 3
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