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Lecture 3

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Art History
Neil Mc Kay

Fox 1: Lecture 3 Art History 1A03 Monday May 13,2013 Lecture 3  Monday May 27=MIDTERM  Fill in the blank key terms  Long answer= a technique  Guideline on avenue to learn  30 minutes  Today: stained glass, illuminated manuscripts, watercolour & ink, and tempura paint on panel  STAINED GLASS (p. 497):  Gothic Era  Church of Saint-Denis, Suger, c. 1130-1144, France = 1st gothic building  Flying Buttresses = walls are supported from the outside  Stained glass windows due to the walls being supported  Physical manifestation of God depicted by stained glass windows  Color is expensive  The Flight Into Egypt, Incarnation Window Church of Saint-Denis, c. 1140-1144  Stained Glass Technique:  Making the glass: heat sand and ash until they are molten  Staining the glass: while glass is molten add metallic oxides for colour  Blow glass and flatten into sheets  Using a cartoon as reference, cut individual shapes of color  Hot iron to crack glass into rough shapes  Grozing: chip away at the edges carefully with an iron tool to smooth out the shapes  Make an opaque paint from iron fillings and ground glass mixed in wine or urine  Paint in the details  Fire the painted glass shapes in a kiln to fuse the paint with the surface  Assemble the shapes Fox 2: Lecture 3  Cames: lead strips to hold the shapes together (use lead because it can bend around the pieces, wouldn’t change color, flexible, strong, gives a little in the wind so glass does not crack)  Mount the panels on an ironwork frame in the opening for the window  Ambulatory and Apse Chapels of the Abbey Church of St. Denis, France, c. 1140-1144  Ribbed vaults (extra support in the ceilings/popular in the gothic era)  Pointed arches  Nave, Chartes Cathedral, c.1194-1220  Flying buttresses are extended out (make everything taller and thinner)  Ribbed vaults, pointed arches, and a nave (rectangular space between aisles and clerestory = upper section of windows)  Good Samaritan Window, Chartes Cathedral, stained and painted glass, c.1200-1210  Jesus is helping humanity from the original sin (Adam & Eve)  Rose Window and Lancets, North Trancept, Chartes Cathedral, c. 1200-1210  Upper Chapel, the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, c. 1239-1248  “Christ’s crown of thorns” = people go and see it  Relics meant money for the church  Purchased by the King of France  Holofernes’ Army Crossing the Euphrates River, From the Judith window, the Sainte- Chapelle Fox 3: Lecture 3 ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS:  Parchment and vellum prepared animal skin (sheep or calf)  Vellum is finer and softer  Parchment is heavier and shinier  Tempura: powdered pigments mixed with egg yolk and water (sometimes glue)  Ink: Medieval ink (for Christian illuminated manuscripts) was made from iron (ferrous sulfate) and oak galls mixed with wine, water and vinegar  Page with Man, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel Book of Durrow, 2 half of 7 century, ink and tempura on parchment  Chi Rho Iota Page from the Book of Kells, probably made at Iona, Scotland, late 8 or th early 9 century. Oxgall inks and pigments on vellum  Chi=X  Rho=P  Iota=I  Greek letter symbolize Christ  Fish and mice a symbol of Christ  Carpet Page: an overall pattern  Title Page  Sections with the gospels: image of the saint doing the writing  Matthew Writing His Gospel, Lindisfarne Gospel Book, c. 715-720, ink and tempura on vellum  Lindisfarne Gospel Technique:  Vellum made from 300 calf skins  Pigments imported from distant lands  Precise outlines made in silverpoint (using thin piece of silver or lead) with compasses and straight edges  Images inked and painted with tempura Fox 4: Lecture 3  Ezra Restoring the Sacred Scriptures, in the Bible known as The Codex Amiatinus, Wearmouth-Jarrow, c. 700-715, ink and tempura on vellum  Page from the Que’an, Syria, 9 century, black ink pigments and gold on vellum  Book production (made by hand) huge part of the Islam culture  Maius, Woman Clothed with the Sun, the Morgan Beatus, Monastery of San Salvador at Tabera, Leon, Psain, 940-945, tempura on vellum = represent Islam  Emeterius & Ende, with the scribe Senior, Battle of the bird and the serpent, completed July 6, 975, tempura on parchment  Queen Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX, from a moralized bible made in Parism 1226- 1234, ink, tempura and gold leaf on vellum, 15 x 10 1/2 “  Page With Thamyris, Giovanni Boccaccio’s De Claris Mulieribus (concerning famous women), 1402, ink and tempura on vellum  Mesoamerica: Pages from Codex Fejervary-Mayer, Mexico, Aztec or Mixtec, c. 1400- 1519, paint on animal hyde  Different directions  Represents 260 days of Aztec calendar and special named days  The founding of Tenochtitlan, page from Codex, Mendoza, Mexico, Aztec, 1545, ink and color on paper  Blackfoot Women Raising Tipi, photography  Plains Indians’ Tipis
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