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Ancient Greece.pdf

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Art History
Neil Mc Kay

Ancient  Greece     Culture and civilization that’s based on trade • A lot of grains from Egypt • Cross-cultural connections Main commodity was liquids • Built a lot of pots Exekias, Achilles and Ajax playing a Game • C. 540-530 BCE • Black figure decoration on an amphora • Ceramic, height 2’ • Doesn’t show the battle, but a moment prior when the guys are just hangin out playin a game o Example of Greek culture -- they values reason, philosophy, rational thought over emotional o Commemorates the battle in a sophisticated way Eupohorius (painter) and Euxitheos (potter), Death of Sarpedon • C. 515 BCE • Red figure decoration on a calyx krater • Ceramic, height of krater 18th rd Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, 6 - 3 century BCE • Theatre, games • Idea that you could communicate with the God at the sanctuary -- oracle Polytheistic Religion: worshipping many gods and goddesses • Zeus • Apollo • Athena (Minerva) • Aphrodite (Venus) • Hermes (Mercury) • Demeter (Ceres) • Persephone (Proserpina) • Dionysos (Bacchus) • Eros (Cupid) • Pan ( Faunus) • Nike (Victory) Temple at Aphaia, Aegina, c. 500 BCE • Conceived of as a sculpture, meant to be conceived in its whole dimension o Meant to be walked around o Columns form open walls o Chamber inside, maybe a statue to the God o Worshipping happens at alters outside the temple o Missing the Pediment and Frieze -- it crumbled • West Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, c. 500-490 BCE o Surviving fragments as assembled in the Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich o Hieratic scale, goddess is upright o Her fighters are at various heights around her o Originally all sculptures were very brightly coloured • Vinzenz Brinkmann and Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann, Reconstruction of an Archer, From o Example of naturalism, figure and painting of the figure is very naturalistic Naturalism • In the early stages of Ancient Greece, we see less naturalistic • Period styles in Ancient Greece o Geometric 900-700 BCE o Archaic 600-480 BCE o Classical 480-323 BCE § Early Classical 480-450 § High Classical 450-400 § Late Classical 400-323 o Hellenistic 323-31/30 BCE Geometric Period • Figures highly stylized according to basic shapes • Man and Centaur, perhaps from Olympia o Votive sculpture o C. 750 BCE o Bronze, height 4 5/8” o Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Archaic Period • Stylized, symmetrical, shoulders level, subtle carving to indicate anatomy, Archaic smile (almost completely blank expression but a hint of a smile) • Metropolitan Kouros o Attica o C. 600 BCE o Marble, height 6’ • Berlin Kore o Cemetery at Keratean, near Athencs o C. 570-560 BCE o Marble with remnants of red paint, height 6’3 o Pomegranate - associated with Persephone • Anavyos Kouros o C. 530 BCE o marble with remnants of paint height 6’4 • “Peplos” Kore o C. What does Classical mean? • Comes from the Latin word classis: o Division of people into classes based on wealth o Classic means first class, highest rank o ART HISTORIANS have applied the term Classical to this period in Ancient Greece because it has been extremely influential othartisth in later cultures: Romans, Renaissance, Baroque, 18 & 19 century European art o Romans especially adopted Greek aesthetics and copied their art Early Classical Greek Scuptlure • Cultural values: humanism, rationalism idealism o “Man is the measure of all things” o “Know thyself” o “Nothing in excess” o Reason over emotion o Style becoming more naturalistic while retaining idealized proportions • Kritios Boy o Acropolis, Athens, o C. 480 BCE Marble, height 3’10 o Contrapposto pose (subtle) • Contrapposto: the convention of presenting satnding figures with opposing alternations of tension and relaxation around central axis o Weight on one leg o Other leg relaxed and bent at the knew o Slight shifting of hips o Very subtle drop of one shoulder o Head slightly turned to the side • Charioteer o From the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi o C. 470 BCE o Bronze, copper (lips and lashes), silver (hand), onyx (eyes),
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