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Lecture 4

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 4.docx

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Karen Mc Garry

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 4 • • Most important molecule is molecule you are studying right now, all molecules are important • Proteins most complex molecules • Proteins form molecular machines • ATP synthase is important • Number of proteins greater than 26 000 due to post-translational modifications etc. • Discuss general principles of machines today, talk about specific ones later • Reactions occur at STP only due to catalysts • • Primary structure is just an amino acid sequence • Antifreeze prevents water from forming ice and breaking the cells by binding to growing ice buds and preventing further growth • Not all combinations of amino acids can make a protein • Amino acid composition not important because what the protein encodes is determined by the sequence, or order, of the amino acid, not the individual amino acid o i.e. similar to how letters do not matter, but their order of forming is what makes a word • One chain = one gene • • How they fold depends on sequences of amino acids • High temperature = denature = non-functional • Do not see individual atoms in tertiary, much lower amplification of tertiary structure • Red: heme molecule • Quaternary: four individual chains not connected to each other by chemical bonds, but rather by VDW, H-bonds, etc. • Tertiary is one chain of proteins (?) • • Do not see side chains here, backbone is a result of amino/carboxyl ends • Carbonyl accepts H from N-H group four groups down on helix • Side chains do not determine the skeleton of the alpha helix • • -sheets stabilized by H-bonds in backbones • Side chains not involved in formation • Anti-parallel: one runs C-N, other runs N-C •  sheets can be formed between differen
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