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Lecture 8

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 8.docx

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Karen Mc Garry

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 8 • • Lipids soluble in organic solvents, but not in water • Not all of these are biological lipids though • • Not all lipids are bio-molecules, but we are only discussing biological lipids • Lipids are not connected to each other by bonds, but rather by hydrophobic interactions • These hydrophobic interactions are very strong, and hold membranes, etc. together • Lipids are indispensible components of membrane • i.e. no lipids, not membranes • efficient energy reserves (more efficient than glycogen) • • Major components of fat are saturated carbon chains • Even unsaturated fat is mostly saturated (?) • Hydrophobicity prevails over hydrophilicity, therefore fatty • When unsaturated, molecule is less flexible • Oleic acid is more flexible than stearic acid • Oleic acid has more conformations due to resonance (?) • Stearic acid can be stacked more easily • Bonds next to double bonds are free to rotate • Single bonds can exist in three conformations (gauche, etc.) • The double bond in oleic acid allows the nearby bonds to rotate freely unlike single bonds which have an energy requirement (3kcal/mol) • • • Fat is more easily stacked than oil • Oils is kinked, much more difficult to stack, rotate in many possible conformations, do not react as strongly as in fat because further away and is unsaturated • • Three components: polar head is glycerol group, X is variable, R is variable • Polar head has central phosphate atoms and X • • Amphiphilic has polar, non-polar characteristics • Blue is hydrophilic, yellow is hydrophobic • • Lung has large surface area, when breathing out, alveoli would collapse without surfactant • The lings do not collapse because the hydrophobic parts are exposed, when they approach each other, they repel each other • Non-polar tails exposed to air • • Sphingosine is hydrophilic, not glycerophospholipid • Two types of sphingo-lipids: cerebrosides, gangliosides • • 15 billion neurons in brain • 15 000 proteins expressed in each neuron • Axons transmit
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