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Lecture 15

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 15.docx

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Boris Zhorov

Biochemistry 2EE3 Lecture 15 • • Redox: reduction-oxidation reactions that occur simultaneously as half-reactions • • Battery converts chemical to electrical energy • High affinity for electrons on one electrode, electrons are happy here and try to move here • But they cannot move within the battery due to the chemical energy • So, they move by converting chemical to mechanical energy through the motor • Affinity is an important term • • Very important slide • Low affinity for electrons = food • Oxygen in environment has high affinity for electrons • Electrons can move to oxygen from food by burning • Normally, we consume food and high energy electrons move in a step-wise fashion • Must extract energy and split it into low energy levels inATP • Major organelle for generatingATP is mitochondria through oxidative phosphorylation which takes high energy coenzymes (reduced forms – FADH, FADH2) which is converted in stepwise fashion to convert toATP which powers our body • Na/KATPase major user ofATP • Muscle is electrically excitable because depolarization can go along fibre and repolarize (job of Na/KATPase) • • Ethane: electrons are unhappy because they are not attracted to the nucleus, total charge of atoms (ex. H) is equal to zero • Ethanol: electrons shifted from carbon to oxygen, which gains oxygen partial negative charge • Aldehyde: an extra bond to oxygen means more electrons to oxygen, which therefore has a stronger partial negative charge • CO2 used to build up new reduced molecules ex. sugars which takes energy • • • Oxidation is loss of electrons, reduction is gain of e
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