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8 Lipids.pdf

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Boris Zhorov

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8 Lipids and Biomembranes! Lipid: biomolecule that is soluble in organic solvents. Classes of lipids include fats, oils, nonprotein membrane components and certain vitamins and hormones. •Unlike proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, lipids are NOT polymers. •They do, however, have great structural variety. Functions of lipids: •Components of biological membranes •energy reserve •signaling molecules Classifications of lipids, based on their chemical structure: •Fatty acids •Triacylglycerols •Glycerophospholipids •Sphingolipids, •Steroids Fatty acids: Carboxylic acids with long-chain hydrocarbon groups. •Stearic acid: HO-C(O)-(CH2)16-CH3 --> 18 Carbons, saturated •Oleic acid: 18 carbons, unsaturated 9-10 bond. •Linoleic acid: 2 unsaturated double bonds. •Unsaturated fatty acids pack together less tightly than saturated ones. Triacylglycerols: Most abundant class of lipids - not components of biomembranes. •Synthesized and stored in adipocytes - fat cells, the long term energy deposit of animals •Fat content of normal humans (21% men 26% female) allow up to 3 months of starvation survival. Glycerophospholipids: family of a amphiphilic (both hydrophobic and hydrophilic components) with aliphatic tails and polar heads •They are the major lipid component of biological membranes. •One glycerophospholipid, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is the major lipid component of the lung surfactant, a substance that is essential for normal pulmonary function by breaking the surface tension of water around the alveolar sacs •This prevents lung collapse. Spingolipids: Derivatives of sphingosine and a fatty acid residue and saccharide. 8 Lipids and Biomembranes! Cerebrosides: exist in the brain, where
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