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6 Gene Expression.pdf

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Boris Zhorov

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6 Gene Expression Jan 2014 DNA can be rendered visible using SEM by coating it with denatured ctyochrome c to fatten it to 200 Angstroms and then shadowing the resulting preparation with platinum Chromosomes are 1.3-10 micrometers long in their most condensed state. Each chromosome contains a single DNA molecule and many proteins. Genome is one haploid (single) set of chromosomes with their containing genes. It includes all the genetic material of an organism. 9 • Consists of 3x10 base pairs in 23 chromosomes. Contour length of DNA in a single cell is ONE METRE. DNA winds around histones, to form nucleosomes that condense into 30 nanometer diameter filaments. • In the condensed chromosome, filaments are attached to a protein scaffold. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology • DNA replicates • Information is transcribed into RNA • RNA information is translated into a peptide. DNA Replication • When a cell divides to produce two daughter cells, DNA molecules are replicated. 6 Gene Expression Jan 2014 • Each strand of parental DNA acts as the template for the syntheses of a complementary daughter strand. The resulting double-stranded molecules are identical. • Multitide of enzymes are involved in the replication process to ensure fidelity and efficiency. Lagging Strand: DNA strand replicated continuously, made in the 5’ to 3’ direction
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