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E Metabolism.pdf

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Boris Zhorov

E Metabolism Learning Objectives: • Catabolic and anabolic pathways • Energy flow in metabolism • Overview of catabolism • ATP + high energy compounds • Locations and control of metabolism. Metabolism: Highly integrated cell activity, involving hundreds of enzyme-catalyzed reactions from which biomolecules are produced, maintained and destroyed, and by which energy is obtained and used. • Hundreds of integrated enzyme catalyzed rxns • Maintains, produces and destroys biomolecules • Energy is obtained or used • Some reactions are common to all organisms. Variations in metabolic reactions are mainly due to differences in free energy sources Divided into two parts: 1. Catabolism: Sum of reactions of degradation in which nutrients and self biomolecules are broken down to produce energy and monomers that are necessary for the synthesis of biopolymers 2. Anabolism: Sum of reactions of biosynthesis in which biological molecules are synthesized from smaller components. Living Organisms are divided based on how they obtain free energy and carbon E Metabolism 1. Autotrophs: Use CO fro2 atmosphere as sole source of carbon. Photoautotrophs (plants) obtain energy from sunlight. Chemolithotrophs Obtain free energy through the oxidation of inorganic componunds. 2. Heterotrophs: Obtain carbon and energy from autotrophs. Vitalism: Old doctrine, now rejected, that claims that living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain a non-physical component or are governed by different principles than inanimate objects. Often refers to a driving force, or vital energy that is equated to a soul. Antoine LaVoisier (1743-1794): Father of modern chemistry. • Demonstrated nature of combustion • Proposed the term oxygen. • Developed new system of chemical nomenclature • Wrote first modern text for chemistry • Responsible for agricultural reform, tax collection, and gunpowder manufacture as a government official. Executed during Reign of Terror. Metabolic Pathways: Series of connected metabolic reactions that make a specific product 1. Exergonic Reactions: Catabolic reactions that break down metabolites to release free energy 2. Endergonic Reaction: Anabolic reactions that synthesize simple metabolites to store and invest free energy Metabolites: Reactants, intermediates and products of a metabolic pathway Energy Flow in Metabolism ADP, NAD , NADP , HPO
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