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F Redox Reactions.pdf

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McMaster University
Boris Zhorov

F Redox Reactions Learning Objectives • Flows of electrons and work • Oxidation with and without oxygen • Redox reactions • Electron transporting Coenzymes • Systems Biology • Reverse transcriptase and cDNA • DNA microarray Flow of Electrons and Work Electric motors convert electron flow into mechanical motion. A battery has two electrodes with different affinity to electrons. Electrons move from the low-affinity electrode to the high-affinity electrode via a macroscopic circuit. A chemical energy inside the battery moves electrons from high to low affinity electrodes. In a muscle, or a biological circuit, the sources of electrons are reduced from compounds in food. They have atoms with low electron affinity which can easily donate electrons (oxidize - reducing agents). As the reduced compounds are enzymatically oxidized, electrons are released. The flow of electrons to high affinity (O ) results in an 2 electromotive force that can be transduced into biological work. 5 Oxidation States of Carbon Ethane: charges of electrons counterbalance charges at nuclei so each atom has a partial charge ~0. Electrons Shift from oxidized compounds from carbon to oxygen. Oxidized carbon bears a positive partial charge, while oxygens a negative partial charge. The whole molecule remains electroneutral • If electrons withdraw from an atom or leave it, the atom is said to be oxidized, even if oxygen is not involved in this process. Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions: Electron transfer from donor to acceptor. OIL RIG • No free electrons in body • Half reactions always occur in pairs • Electrons move by changing carriers. F Redox Reactions Four ways of Electron Transfer 1. Direct transfer 2. Transfer in form of Hydrogen 3. Form of Hydride ion H- 4. Direct Combination of reductant with oxygen Redox Reactions involving NAD
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