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H Glucose Catabolism II.pdf

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Boris Zhorov

Structure of Pyruvate H Glucose Catabolism 2 Learning Objectives • Homeolactic fermentation • Alcoholic fermentation • Metabolism of hexoses other than glucose • Pentose-Phosphate pathway One glucose molecule = 2 Pyruvate molecules! H Glucose Catabolism 2 Once pyruvate is metabolized, it has 3 fates based on the availability of oxygen (1)Aerobic conditions: Completely oxidized via citric acid cycle, results in CO 2nd H O.2 (2)Anaerobic conditions in muscle: reduced to lactate (3)Aerobic conditions in yeast: Forms ethanol + CO 2 Homolactic Fermentation: Occurs in the muscle, particularly during vigorous activity when ATP demand is high and [O ] is 2ow. •Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi −> 2 lactate + 2 ATP + 2 H O + 22H + •Muscle fatigue and soreness is not caused by lactate, but rather by low pH. Muscle can work long if the pH remains consistent. H Glucose Catabolism 2 Anaerobic Glycolysis: Low efficiency but fast. The rate of ATP production by anaerobic glycolysis can be 100x faster than that of oxidative phosphorylation. ★When muscles work hard, they rapidly consume ATP and regenerate it almost entirely via anaerobic glycolysis ★ Lactate is not further oxidized --> dead end in the pathway. + 0’ Glucose --> 2 lactate + 2H Δ"G = - 196 kJ/mol However, energy reserve is not wasted. Lactate has two fates: (1) Carried by blood to liver and new glucose is synthesized (2) Converted to pyruvate in the muscle Lactate Reecycling Location Liver Muscle Final Product Glucose Pyruvate Slow twitch muscle fibers: Obtain energy primarily from oxidative phosphorylation. They are enriched with mitochondria and appear dark. •Long distance runners are rich in slow twitch fibers Fast-twitch muscle fibers: Obtain energy via anaerobic glycolysis and appear light. •Sprinters are rich in fast twitch fibers Alcoholic Fermentation: Occurs in yeast and produces ethanol <333333 •A
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