BIOCHEM 2EE3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, Acetyl-Coa, Adipose Tissue

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2EE3- Module 12: Summary of Metabolic Pathways
Nutrient Breakdown Generates Energy
-Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins provide fuel for the cell
-Glucose undergoes glycolysis  pyruvate undergoes pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction  acetyl-CoA undergoes citric
acid cycle  CO
2; NADH and FADH2 passes electrons through electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation 
-Fats are broken into triacylglycerols  glycerol and fatty acids; glycerol undergoes beta oxidation to become acetyl-
CoA; produced reducing equivalents help produce ATP
-Proteins are broken down into amino acids to feed the aforementioned pathways, depending on the amino acid
Preferred Fuels
-Liver stores glucose as glucagon
oProcesses all the fats that are ingested and repackages it as chylomicrons and sends it out to other tissues
to use as fuel
oHas a bit of triacylgglycerols stored within, but not too much (don't want a fatty liver)
-Adipose tissues store fat for long term
-Heart doesn’t have energy reserves so it relies on circulating fatty acids as a supply of fuel
-Skeletal muscles stores and uses glycogen and a small amount of triaglycerols
Muscle Contraction
-Muscle utilizes ATP during physical exertion so ATP production is constant and can produce at various rates (atheletes
produce 100x faster)
-Muscles use fat at rest or during low-energy exercises
oDelivered via bloodstream from the adipose tissue
-Muscles use fat and carbohydates in intermediate-level energy
oFats provided through the blood stream and carbohydrates provided from the liver via blood stream
-Muscles use glucose for high-energy exercises
oGlycolysis provides ATP through substrate level phosphorylation at a faster rate than the flux of metabolic
intermedatiates via beta oxidation and citric acid cycle
Glucose first comes from the liver via blood stream but it doesn't meet the demand so it comes from
local and immediate stores of glycogen
oGlycolysis provides the most ATP and creatine phosphate
Creatine Phosphate Buffers ATP Levels:
-High energy phosphate compound that serves as an energy buffer inside of the cell
-It buffers ATP levels as they drop during the onset of high-intensity energy
-Creatine kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from creatine phosphate to ADP to replenish ATP levels
-Creatine is produced in the body or consumed from meat
oCan be an ergogenic acid because it gives the extra boost of energy
Lactate Production During Exercise
-Substrate level metabolism produces lactate as a bi-product when NAD+ is regenerated to allow glycolysis to continue
-Lactate causes muscle fatigue and cramping
-Lactate produced slows us down and we exhaust our creatine phosphate stores as well
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