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Lecture 15

BIOCHEM 4M03 Lecture 15: Insulin Resistance Type 2 Diabetes

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Deborah Sloboda

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Biochem 4M03 Lecture 15 Insulin Resistance Type 2 Diabetes
Last Lecture: Ergogenic Aids
- Creatine (left graph)
o Increased high energy phosphate buffer
- Caffeine (right graph)
o Promotes lipolysis
o Increased blood lipids (fuel)
o Muscle glycogen sparing
o Draw more energy from blood lipids during exercise
- B2 Agonists
o Smooth muscle
o Skeletal muscle
o Cardiac muscle
Increased HR
o Can do this pharmacologically, but implication
for disease
Today: Overview
- Insulin resistance
- Obesity
o Dietary fat
o Endogenous lipids
- Fat insulin resistance diabetes
Review: Blood glucose control
- Defective in diabetes and often in metabolic syndrome
- Your blood glucose level changes when you eat
- Maintaining glucose within really tight range is important
- When you lose control of this tight range you pass out (too low) or have complications
(too high)
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Review: Many actions of insulin
- Memorize the table below
- Insulin is the key controller of glucose
- Glycogen is major stores
- Anabolic hormone stores energy
Glucose control
- Eat meal, goes through intestines (signals from intestines), releases incretin hormones
like GLP1 which directly effects pancreas
- Increasing glucose also effects pancreas
- Beta cells in pancreas secretes insulin
- Drop blood glucose, makes it go into muscle and fat
- Makes sure to shut down what liver is doing
- Glucose is sensed by brain
Review: Insulin and glucose homeostasis
- Purple top pic: beta cells in pancreas
- Dispose and shuts down production
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Obesity, fat, insulin and glucose
- Hyperchloric diets where excess calories get stored
- Energy gets stored in these t issues
- Adipocytes get bigger
- Globules stained red (fat) gets stored everywhere
- Stops insulin from doing its job properly
o Important distinction: doesn’t stop it from being produced
- Hyperinsulinemia cause body is compensating (but is unable to do its job well)
o When this happens, no compensation anymore
- Diabetes related death every 7 seconds
- Comparable with all cancers combined
- No cure for this treatment but can treat it
Insulin resistance
- Inability to respond to insulin
- Hyperinsulinemia
o More insulin secreted by pancreas (compensation)
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