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Biology Chapter 19.docx

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Lovaye Kajiura

Biology Chapter 19 Analyzing and Engineering GenesThe Polymerase Chain ReactionThe polymerase chain reaction PCR is an in vitro DNA synthesis reaction in which a specific section of DNA is replicated over and over to amplify the number of copies of that sequenceIts a technique for generating many identical copies of a particular section of DNAAlthough PCR is much faster and technologically easier than cloning genes into a DNA library it is only possible when a researcher has some information about DNA sequences near the gene in questionSequence information is required because to do a polymerase chain reaction you have to start with short lengths of a singlestranded DNA that match sequences on either side of the gene of interestThese short segments act as primers for the synthesis reactionPrimer sequences must be complementary to bases on either side of the gene in questionOne primer is complementary to a sequence on one strand upstream of the target DNA the sequence of interestThe other primer is complementary to a sequence on the other strand downstream of the target DNAIf the target DNA molecule is made single stranded then the primer
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