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Biology Chapter 6.docx

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Lovaye Kajiura

Biology Chapter 6 Lipids Membranes and the First Cells LipidsGeneral term for carboncontaining compounds that are found in organisms and are largely nonpolar and hydrophobicDo dissolve in liquids consisting of nonpolar organic compoundsDo not dissolve in water because they have a significant hydrocarbon component and electrons are shared equally in carbonhydrogen bonds making them nonpolarAre defined by their physical property solubility instead of their chemical structureAs a result structure of lipids varies widelyTypes of lipids o FatsComposed of three fatty acids that are linked to a three carbon molecule called glycerolAlso called triglyceridesForm when a dehydration reaction occurs between a hydroxyl group of glycerol and the carboxyl group of a fatty acidGlycerol and fatty acid molecules become joined by an ester linkage Ex CholesterolDistinguished by hydrocarbon tail formed of isoprene subunitsAn important component of plasma membranes in many organismsEstrogen progesterone and testosterone are examples of hormones derived from cholesterol o PhospholipidsConsist of glycerol linked to a phosphate group and to either two chains of isopropene or two fatty acidsIn some cases phosphate group is bonded to another small organic molecule such as cholinePhospholipids with isopropene tails are found in domain ArchaeaPhospholipids composed of fatty acids are found in domains Bacteria and Eukarya o Steroids o RWETrans fatswhy they are bad for usPartially hydrogenated oilsTriglycerides naturally unsaturated fatty acid tails have been chemically altered to be more saturated by adding H atoms hydrogenationUsed to maintain semisolid texture and flavour longerCan cause
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