Chapter 7: Inside the Cell
7. The differences between peroxisomes and vacuoles are first of the type of cell that
both are located in; peroxisomes are located in both animal and plant cells, however
vacuoles are only present in plant cells. Also peroxisomes and vacuoles have very
different shapes and structures and this is because of their huge differences in function.
While peroxisomes are the locations of oxidative reactions (necessary for converting
highly corrosive hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water), whereas vacuoles are
necessary for the storage of many different compounds such as: water, ions, proteins,
pigments, noxious substances, chlorophyll, etc.
8. A transport vesicle is a vesicle organelle that has the purpose of transporting proteins
and other substances across the membrane.
9. The 3 main components of the cytoskeleton are: microfilaments, intermediate
filaments and microtubules. The types of protein subunits that make up the
microfilaments are called actin filaments (strands of actin molecules intertwined), the
subunits for intermediate filaments are keratin and the subunits for microtubules are
alpha and beta tubulin.
10. The main functions of actin molecules are the maintenance of the cell shape, cell
motility (amoeboid movement), cell division (cytokinesis), cytoplasmic streaming and
organelle movement. The main functions of microtubules are maintaining cell motility,
the movement of the chromosomes during cell division (mitosis), maintenance of cell
shape and organelle movement.
11. The way that protein conformational change, the use of ATP and “walking” or
“sliding” of microtubule doublets are interrelated by the purpose that the combination
of all these things complete. The “walking” or “sliding” of microtubule doublets requires
ATP to occur and the protein conformational change is needed for the attachment and
release (feet moving along the track) in response to the gain or loss of a phosphate
12. The arr