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Lecture 23

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture 23: 23- Human Behavior

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McMaster University
Ben Evans

Bio 1M03 March 3, 2016 Human Behavior • When, where and why did our species Homo sapiens evolve? • What behavioral changes accompany the evolution of our species? • Did these changes happen gradually or suddenly? Morphological Feature of Modern Homo sapiens - Fossil records - Anatomical - Morphological features - Large round skull with high forehead - Small face and teeth - Protruding chin - Less robust postcranial skeleton - Long limbs - Long limbs are due to the place of evolution was near the equatorial line and helped with the dissipation of heat - Neanderthals and Homo sapiens can be easily distinguished, due to the differences between them The original and Spread of Modern Humans - Homo sapiens evolved in Africa - 100,00 to 200,00 years ago - Small population left Africa, 60,000 years ago - Populated Australia and the Americas - Did not leave Africa in a well organized manner - Interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans - We know the interbreeding existed due to the Y chromosome and mtDNA - Mitochondrial Eve, mitochondrial DNA is only given though mother - Different genes have different histories - Mutations accumulate over time, gene trees - Mutations accumulate over time, and it can be pictorially displayed in gene trees - Distribution occurred slowly, bit by bit - Low genetic diversity o Indicates recent evolution o Descended form small population (~12,000) - The variation that exists after migration and evolution changes and there is less variation - Genetic drift, bottleneck effect, diseases and migration patterns affect variation The Origin and Spread of Modern Humans - Gene tree - Distribution - Diversity - Variation - Maps The African Archeological Record for the Later Pleistocene - Modern human behavior - Genetic and environmental component - Middle Stone Age (modes 3-5) o Technological advances o Social organization o Symbolic expression - Blades (mode 4) - Microliths (mode 5) o Composite tools o Spea
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