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Lecture 36

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture 36: 36- Sustainability

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McMaster University
Ben Evans

Biology 1M03 April 6, 2016 Sustainability - 6. Pollution o Pollution of air, water and land o Industrial pollutants o Pesticides o Oil spills - 7. Global Warming o Predicted that 5.5 degree Celsius increase in temperature in the next 100 years o Some species - Hot spot: A relatively small area, many threatened and endangered species, large concentration of endemic species o Tropical forest o Chaparral: shrubs, high biodiversity o Coral reefs o Focus on protecting the hotspots Tragedy of The Commons - Published in the journal of science, in the 60’s - About a king, who was a good king who was a kind person and he wants to reward their subjects - Gives the subjects plots of land where they can do whatever they want - Commons: places where resources are owned in common, where everyone uses the resources and no direct owner can be found o Found in the environment o No direct owner o Owned by many or no one - There were some people who used more land than others, raised cattle and used more resources than sustainable - Tragedy occurred due to the unsustainability - Lessons o Overexploitations of commons eventually led to disaster o Must consider the long term effects of out activities o Sustainability dictates that common resources’ be maintained for the benefit of future users not just current users - Obstacles o Commons are difficult to protect since everyone owns the resources or there is no direct owner o Difficult to restore damaged resources because no one wants to assist with the costs o Resources are not monitored effectively - Natural ecosystems recovery rates are slower than rates of human-induced degradation - Sustaining ecosystem will require a change in some human values - Some people are not as concerned about biodiversity and conservation because o Humans tend to think more in short term rather than long term Expansionist Perspective - Treat the economy as a growing, open, independent system - Believe that due to technological innovation the economy lacks any important connectedness to the environment - As if it is finite Ecological Steady-State Perspective - Ecologists view the economy as a open, completely dependent subsystem on a non-growing materially-closed, finite ecosphere Positive Initiatives - 1. Zone reserves o Costa Rica is one of the global leaders in development of zoned reserves o Shown in green are the reserves (illegal to hunt or have cont
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