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BIO 1M03 - (Chap 27) – Phylogenies & History of Life.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Ben Evans
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter27PhylogeniesHistoryofLifeGeneticDiversityHeterozygoteAdvantageincreasesgeneticdiversityQuantifyGeneticDiversitySimpsonsIndexofDiversityItistheaveragesquareproportionsoftheseallelesredallelesbluealleleswhiteallelesinfirstsquareonleftDCalculateDgiventheofcolourtotalAddThen1DGivesyoualargernumberhigherdiversityUnderstanditandapplyitOntherightmorediverseJustbyseeingitmorecoloursmorediverseGivenarandomsamplemorediverseontherightAllelefrequenciesmoreevenonrightHigherheterozygousityunderHWEontherightsideAllelicnumberishowmanyallelesyouhaveAllelediversityistheallelefrequencyofthoseallelesTheybothhaveequaldiversityofallelenumberbothhave3allelesDifferentgeneticdiversityJustusingitinclasstocomparepopulationswiththesameallelenumberGIVENANDAPPLYFORMULAJustbylookingyoucanseerightismorediverseUnderHWEismoreheterozygotesandheterozygosityEffectsofdifferentkindsofnaturalselectionTypeofnaturalselectionNumberofGeneticDiversityafterAllelesSelectionDisruptiveNochangeHigherHeterozygoteAdvantageNochangeHigherDirectionalLowerLowerStabilizingLowerLowerPositiveFrequencyDependentLowerLowerNegativeFrequencyDependentNochangeHigherGoodsummaryRecognizeandknowitNaturalSelectionCANNOTincreaseallelenumberONLYMUTATIONCANItcanaffectgeneticdiversityMonopolygenyalsoknownascladeorlineagesAncestralpopulationthatincludesitsancestorsandALLofitsmostrecentdescendantshowtopickitoutdefinitionmidtermSlide36KNOWITUnderstanditGeneticDiversityInterpretingphylogeniesEstimatingPhylogeniesMaximumparisomycladisticsandphoneticsdistanceanalysisHomologyandhomoplasyConvergenceDNAbarcodingandcrypticspeciesPhylogenyevolutionaryhistoryofagroupoforganismsrecognizesectionsIncludesTaxawhateveryouareinterestedinevaluatinginspeciesdifferentspeciesdifferentindividualsjusttolookatevolutionaryrelationshipsBroadtermTipswheretheendsofthetreeareandwherethetaxais
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