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Cell Division

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Douglas Davidson

Cell division  Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells by mitosis and meiosis o Replacement of the entire lining of your small intestine o Liver cells only divide for repairing o Nerve cells do not divide Chromosomes  Long and thin for replication and decoding  Become short and fat prior mitosis → easier to separate due to compact form Meiosis (reduction division)  During the production of sex cells (gametes) in animals  In spore formation which precedes gamete production in plants  Haploid gametes (sperm ovum) - sexual reproduction  DNA in a cell replicates only once, but cell divides twice The Cell Cycle  Interphase o G1: Protein synthesis and growth (10 hours)  Preparation for DNA replication (e.g. growths of mitochondria)  Differentiation, only selected genes are used to perform different functions in each cell o S: DNA Replication (9 hours) o G2: short gap before mitosis, organelles and proteins for mitosis are made (4 hours)  G0: Resting phase (nerve cells)  M-phase o Mitotic division of the nucleus (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase) o Cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) Interphase  Phase with highest metabolism (mitochondria have a high activity)  Muscles never complete the whole cycle Mitosis  Process of producing 2 diploid daughter cells with the same DNA by copying their c
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