Class Notes (835,366)
Canada (509,138)
Biology (2,437)
BIOLOGY 2C03 (138)
Lecture

what is a gene.docx

8 Pages
122 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 2C03
Professor
Bhagwati Gupta
Semester
Fall

Description
September 9 , 2013 Biology 2C03: Genetics What is a Gene? Model Organisms - E. coli - Yeast - Worms - Arabodopsis - Fruitflie - Mouse What is a Gene? - Define, recognize, describe and apply Mendel’s first principle - Develop a useful definition for a gene - Distinguish genotype and phenotype - Solve genetic problems relating to monohybrid crosses - Interpret pedigrees - Use the rules of probability to determine genotypic and phenotypic proportions - Distinguish between complete, incomplete and co-dominance - Determine dominance relationships at different phenotypic levels Why Study Genetics? - Genetics plays a critical role in understanding disease  Single gene: sickle cell or Huntingtons  Complex genes: heart disease, diabetes, multiple genes which increase or decrease the risk of developing disease and is associated with environmental influences - Genetics improves agricultural practices - Genetics used biotechnology industry for drug design, development, and production  Bacteria and fungi produce antibiotics Ted Talk - 99.9% identical - Sequence the entire human genome - Access to genetic information - First attempt at creating a synthetic organism from a genome Fundamental Concepts Review - A gene is the fundamental unit of heredity  Unit of information that encodes a genetic characteristic - Genes come in multiple forms called alleles - Genotype confers phenotype  Phenotype is manifestation of the genotype - Genetic information is carried in DNA  Can also be carried in RNA, for example, influenza - Genes are located on chromosomes - Genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein  Genetic information can also be carried in RNA Basic Principles of Heredity - Gregor Johann Mendel discovered basic principles of heredity - Principle of segregation and independent assortment The Pea Plant Pisium sativum - Easy cultivate  Complete generation single growing season - Produce many offspring  Enabled calculation meaningful mathematical ratios - Several traits existed 2 easily distinguished forms  Multiple phenotypes  Shows that it is not specific for only one phenotype Genetic Terminology - Gene: a genetic factor (region of DNA) that helps determine a characteristic - Allele: one of two or more alternative forms of a gene - Locus: specific place on a chromosome occupied by an allele - Genotype: set of alleles possessed by an individual organism - Heterozygote: an individual organism possessing two different alleles at a locus - Homozygote: an individual organism possessing two of the same alleles at a locus - Phenotype or trait: the appearance or manifestation of a character - Character or characteristic: an attribute or feature Case Study: Sickle Cell Disease - Walter Noel: sickle cell proband – first individual described to have these symptoms - Symptoms: Severe anemia, debilitating muscle pain, respiratory problems - Admitted hospital 1904 under care of intern Dr. Ernest Irons and supervising physician Dr. James Herrick - Performed blood smear as part of diagnostic attempts - Red bloods cells were pear shaped, flat, and were found in low density - 1940s inheritance pattern and physical chemistry of haemoglobin S were understood - Renowned scientist Linus Pauling called sickle cell anemia “the first molecular disease” - Blood smear under the microscope  Normal: round, and numerous  Sample from Noel: flat, fewer, and pear-shaped, half-life is shorter therefore there are less RBCs Cellular Phenotype - Abnormal: curved and flat Sickle Cell Anemia or Sickle Cell Disease is Hereditary -
More Less

Related notes for BIOLOGY 2C03

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit