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Lecture

AMINO ACID METABOLISM Amino

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 2D03
Professor
Laura Parker
Semester
Fall

Description
AMINO ACID METABOLISM Amino acids degraded to ammonia (passes through urea cycle) and carbon skeletons (enter TCA as a-keto acids and exit as OAA) Different type of storage as compared to glycogen and fat - synthesis of proteins not directed by AA conc. - protein breakdown has significant biological effects 50% of protein in skeletal musc. 20% in bones 350 g protein turnoved/day Essential AA’s: VT MILF HKR W “protein complementarity” – need ALL proteins in right proportion Nitrogen balance – positive during growth, pregnancy, recovery negative during malnutrition, metabolic stress, trauma, illness Ammonia – typical levels are 30-60 uM death above 150 uM sol’n: alternate nitrogen carriers: ALANINE, GLUTAMINE rapid transport urea cycle to convert excess nitrogen to urea urinary excretion of urea Digestion: proteins cleaved to individual aa’s in small int. 5 transport systems to get aa’s out of lumen neutral, small neutral, large pro/gly basic acidic fate: new protein synth. gluconeogenesis (if no sugar in diet) fat conversion (high sugar diet) TRANSAMINATION – during synth or destruction AAT – Aspartate Amino Transferase uses PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE to take off amino group from AA from vitamin B6 pyridoxal phosphate puts amino on an alpha-keto acid oxaloacetate  aspartate pyruvate  alanine DIRECT INCORPORATION OF AMMONIA INTO GLU, GLN 1 – GLU DEHYDROGENASE no PLP activity a-ketoglutarate  glutamate uses NADPH to make glutamate  aa synth. done in times of high energy reversible: aa consumption when low energy 2 – GLN SYNTHAS
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