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Lecture 18

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McMaster University
Jianping Xu

Lecture 18 Diversity of Bacteria Common features of deep phylogenies short internal branches and long terminal branches why o each group has phylao bacteria alone has about a 100 phylao terminal branches are typically long and internal branches are shorto many parallelreverse mutations make it impossible to separate ancestral nucleotides of sequenced and it becomes hard to separate groups The mutations are saturated in the same nucleotides o internal branches become longer and terminal branches become shorter when you look at a whole genome as opposed to just a portion of itenough information to tell apart groups o deep phylogenythis kind of pattern is only present deep within very complicated trees o the best explanation is saturation of mutationsHow many prokaryotic species o 7 years agodata in table 116species domain and phyla are the most important classifications o new speciesneed to publish findings that are peer reviewed which makes the species officially recognized o within species you can classify organisms based onbiovar serovar pathovar and phagovar o Most authoritative classification of eukaryotes is called Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Taxa within sequences in the GenBank Database 2012 o bacterial and archea species have increased significantly o the change in eukaryotic species name is limited o species definition of viruses is different than bacteria so a large change in viral species is not seen o you need a sequence of 16s ribosomal RNA gene and structure of a species to define it o there are a lot more species of eukaryotes than what is shown in the table because a lot of them are so old that there is not enough material available to get a DNA sequence to attach to the species description to put it in the gene banko there is a lot of uncertainty in eukaryotic taxonomy o for prokaryotes if DNA is not present or cant be isolated you can look at the morphology of a similar speciesit is a easier process than classifying eukaryotesBacterial speciation
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