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Life in water.docx

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McMaster University
Kim Dej

September 13 , 2012 Biology 2F03: Fundamental and Applied Ecology Life in Water (1) What is different - density oxygen, light, no H O2shortage, pressure How much water - 71% of Earth’s surface - breakdown ocean 97%, glaciers 2%, freshwater 1% (1/5 Baikal, 1/5 Great Lakes, 1/5 rift valley lakes) How deep is the ocean? - 4km on average Question - are chemical and physical conditions in the ocean similar at different latitudes: coriolis force, temperature, oxygen, evaporation range, density - are chemical and physical conditions in the ocean similar at different longitudes Life in water: latitude and longitude - winds influence: currents bring cold or warm water Life in water: oceanic zone - intertidal zone: very narrow zone near the coast difference between lowest tide and highest tide - neritic zone: organisms have contact - epipelagic zone: photosynthetic activity, 200m thick, top layer - mesopelagic zone: decreasing light and temperature, still some penetration of light but no activity, a few organisms, limited in food - balthypelagic zone: deep dark but open ocean, limited in food - abyssal zone: deepest, darkest, coolest - hadal zone - deceasing light and temperature: with depths produces a series of vertical habitat zones - exponential loss of light, drop in oxygen, temperature: deep ocean is cooler, less oxygen because of diffusion - photosynthesis only on top layer - open water and bottom habitats: not much algae or zooplankton - vents and chemosynthesis: volcanic vents  very compressed water which interacts with the rock, high pressure and temperature when hits the cooling water precipitate Life in water: adaptations - adaptations to deep water and limited food:  angler fish: light bait to attract fish  male is becoming organ of female, number and size of fins and skeletal system reduced  male – a sperm-producing appendage of females  dorsal appendage gives light Question - findi
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