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life in water (2).docx

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McMaster University
Kim Dej

September 17 , 2012 Biology 2F03: Fundamental And Applied Ecology Life in Water (2) Questions - what is an atoll: island typically in the Pacific ocean which looks like a ring, in the center is a lake, sometimes it has a connection with the outside ocean - how does an atoll form: possible volcanoes Life in water: coral reef types - volcanoes - coral reef forms around the island, form around any shallow shores in warm waters - island at some point stops growing: due to extinction of volcano - begins to erode - young island: fringing reef - as the island erodes: appears away from the shore - subsiding island: barrier reef, reef crest, lagoon - reef patches - if the ocean surface doesn’t change and the island erodes, coral manages to keep tracking this surface - ring island is an atoll, reef can grow outside (more nutrients), rain tends to stay in the shallow area and therefore does not mix with the ocean water so there is usually not many reefs growing in the atoll - eroded island: atoll and lagoon - reefs renew themselves forming a protection to the land and prevents erosion, water level provides a confortable source of resources Life in water: corals and kelps - corals: tropics, warm currents, no slit - kelp: temperate, cold currents, rocky shores Life in water: tidal zones - when the ocean meets the land there is a tide - tidal fluctuation produces gradient of environmental conditions within the intertidal zone - supertidal fringe: most exposure to atmosphere, least inundation - upper intertidial zone: exposed to air - middle intertidal zone - lower intertidal zone - subtidal zone - least exposure to atmosphere, most inundation - examples: starfish and sea urchin - gradient of air and sun, gradient of wave energy: rich but difficult zone - adaptations to hide and resist air: different on rocky and sandy shores Question - can trees grow in the ocean: needs special cell that exudes salt - can grasses grow in the ocean: yes, submerged and emergent Mangroves - considered nurseries to oceanic fish - productivity from leaves falling into the ocean providing food for fish
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