September 6 , 2012
Biology 2F03: Fundamentals of Ecology
What is Ecology?
- what is ecology: branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms
to one another and to their physical surroundings.
Forest birds – testing competition theory
- why different species live together and how?
- Can several species use the same resource (MacArthur): possibility that they
- MacArthur analyzed Warblers in spruce forest
- Different species of Warblers feed in different places on the tree
1. division of resources takes place as postulated, resulting from
2. as a result competition is reduced
3. aggression – one of mechanisms, ex.: warblers
Forest birds – testing theory
- where black-throated green warblers are absent yellow-rumped warblers
move their feeding zone upwards
- additional evidence: what would happen if only one species was present?
1. division of resources ceases as expected
2. the remaining species is released from competition
3. its habitat expands and abundance can grow Question
- what are the examples of questions, research areas, and methods used by
Nutrient budgets & large scale ecology
- many things happen in the branches
- photosynthesis, nutrient capture or release, other organisms (including
- sometimes research requires some risks or focuses on large scale processes;
e.g. Hubbard Brook , experimental forest in New Hampshire, discovery of
- example of studies: Hubbard Brock experimental watershed in New
Hampshire (Likens and Borman)
- comparison of two streams: one with vegetation and one without to see what
chemicals are present
- nutrients were still retained in organic mass, vegetation stabilizes it’s own