BIOLOGY 1A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Rho Factor, Phosphodiester Bond, Nucleic Acid Sequence

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Unit 1: Reading the Blueprint
Genes: Sections of the DNA molecule which contain information that is then
transcribed into an RNA copy.
The central dogma: The process of interpreting genes into proteins.
Unit 2: Transcription in Prokaryotes
• RNA is complimentary and antiparallel.
• RNA is the same as the contemplate strand (complementary to DNA).
• RNA polymerase attaches to promoter regions for RNA to be transcribed.
• RNA attaches 5’ relative to the gene of interest.
Polymerase will move in 3’ to 5’ direction synthesizing an RNA that is 5’ to 3’.
• Nucleotide sequence known as terminator on DNA strand will stop RNA transcription
and release it, located on 3’ end of DNA strand.
Transcription Initiation
• Consensus sequence: TATAAT = 1-base upstream and is promoter region.
• TTGCCA = 35 nucleotides upstream.
Process of transcription requires the association of the RNA polymerase with proteins
called sigma factors which facilitate the binding of the promoter region of the DNA.
• To initiate transcription, pro. RNA polymerase is able to recruit different types of sigma
factors as a way to initiate transcription of different types of genes.
Transcription initiation will start when RNA polymerase core enzyme binds to a
sigma subunit to create a holoenzyme that is capable of binding to and
unwinding the DNA helix.
Transcription occurs within the RNA polymerase enzyme.
• Transcription bubble.
• RNA-DNA duplex.
• RNA polymerase engages an open conformation and functions as a molecular
• RNA polymerase is able to restore the DNA double helix once the transcript is
As the DNA molecule is synthesized it dissociates with the DNA template, and the DNA
helix is able to reform.
A single gene can be transcribed by several RNA polymerase at a time to make
greater copies of a single gene.
Elongation at the 3’ end
Ribonucleotide triphosphate will correctly base pair with the template DNA. The
phosphate energy of the incoming ribonucleotide triphosphate is used to drive the high
energy reaction process that is required to create a phosphodiester bond between the
incoming nucleotide and the growing RNA transcript.
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BIOLOGY 1A03 Full Course Notes
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