BIOLOGY 1A03 Lecture Notes - Hydrolysis, Dynamic Equilibrium, Amylopectin

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13 Feb 2014
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R2011 BIOLOGY 1A03: CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
'5.$-,85$¶6UPDATED LECTURE OUTLINES
WEEK 1 : MONDAY, MAY 2ND TO WEDNESDAY MAY 4TH 2011
IMPORTANT
The posted Biology 1A03 AVENUE Lecture Outlines are NOT detailed lecture notes.
Students are expected to supplement the posted AVENUE Lecture Outlines with their own written notes.
Since Supplementary Lecture Topics and Examples will be discussed EXCLUSIVELY in lectures
(they are NOT found in the textbook), it is very important that students attend ALL Biology 1A03 Lectures.
Note that Chapter 2 in the Biology 1A03 textbook is considered assumed knowledge that
should have been previously obtained in high school biology 12U.
CHAPTER 3: PROTEIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
MONOMER - subunit or building block of a polymer
POLYMER - large molecule composed of several connected subunits, which are identical or similar
MACROMOLECULES - large organic polymers
Fig.3.1 Miller Spark-Discharge Experiment
WHY WAS STANLEY 0,//(5¶6(;3(5,0(17SO SIGNIFICANT?
6WDQOH\0LOOHU¶VH[SHULPHQWVLPXODWHGWKHHDUO\HDUWKFRQGLWLRQV.
His results and those of other subsequent researchers supported chemical evolution.
NOTE that there are other alternative perspectives related to Hydrothermal Vents and the Murchison
Meteorite
AMINO ACIDS
Fig. 3.2 Amino Acid Structure
Fig. 3.3 The 20 Major Amino Acids Found in Organisms
- R group is variable
- 20 different R groups o 20 different amino acids
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Fig. 3.4 Structural, Geometric, and Optical Isomers
STRUCTURAL ISOMERS
Students were advised to take notes during the in-class discussion of this topic.
GEOMETRIC ISOMERS
Students were advised to take notes during the in-class discussion of this topic.
OPTICAL ISOMERS
- are isomers which are mirror images of each other
- carbon is asymmetric, D-carbon
- exists as 2 isomers, rotates a beam of polarized light to the left or to the right
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
THE PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF OPTICAL ISOMERS
IN THE 75($70(172)3$5.,1621¶6',6($6(
L- DOPA & D- DOPA
DOPA = Dihydroxy Phenyl-Alanine
Students were advised to take notes during the in-class discussion of this topic.
Refer to the supplementary figure (DOPA) posted on the Biology 1A03 Avenue website.
PROTEINS
Summary Table 3.1 Protein Functions ± proteins serve several roles in cells and in organisms
CONDENSATION (DEHYDRATION) REACTION
- a peptide bond forms between 2 amino acids
Fig. 3.6 Polymers can be Extended or Broken Apart
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Fig. 3.8 Amino acids Polymerize to Form Polypeptides
PRIMARY (1q) Structure
- unique and specific amino acid sequence encoded in DNA
- the amino acid sequence provides specificity in function and folding conformation
REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
Fig. 3.11 CHANGES IN PRIMARY STRUCTURE AFFECT PROTEIN FUNCTION
SICKLE CELL DISEASE
Students were advised to take notes during the in-class discussion of this topic.
SECONDARY (2q) STRUCTURE (Fig. 3.12 Secondary Structures of Proteins)
- D-helices & E-pleated sheets
- H bond forms between ±C=O & -N-H of two peptide bonds
- H bonds do not involve R groups
- regular repeating units, contributes to structure (strong)
- on average, 60% of polypeptide structure is in D-helix or E-pleated sheet form.
Fig. 3.13 Tertiary Structure of Proteins Results from Interactions Involving R-Groups
TERTIARY (3q) STRUCTURE
- consists of irregular contortions due to interactions (disulphide bridges, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds,
hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions) between various side chains of amino acids
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