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Lecture 8

BIOLOGY 1A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Chromatin Remodeling, Cpg Site, Signal Transduction

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Rosa Da Silva

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Theme 3 Applied Lecture Epigenetics and Gene Regulation
Signals are detected by cells:
Environmental ques can change gene expression
Involves signal released from cell
Signal received by a cell
Receptors on target cell will bind the signal ex. Insulin receptors in liver and
muscles (liver stores and muscle uses) - released from pancreas
Signal transduction cascade can lead to short term or long term response
Short term: modify immediate cell processes ex. Metabolism and movement and can
include post translational modifications
Long term: modification of gene expression and development ex. Growth hormone
Levels of gene expression regulation:
1. Chromatin
2. Transcription
3. RNA processing
4. RNA stability
5. Translation
6. Post translational modification
Regulating gene expression at transcriptional level = epigenetic factors such as methyl
or acelty groups
DNA compaction regulates gene expression:
Epigenetic mechanism that allows unwinding or winding of DNA= methylation of
histone tails (relieves positive charge) or acetyl tails
Methylate CpG island is another epigenetic mechanism
Modified genome modified by epigenetic modifications
Not changing DNA sequence only adding or modifying
Mechanisms include:
Modifications of histone tails
DNA methylation
Chromatin remodeling
Packaging of DNA around nucleosomes
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