1: these dna markers are detectable using various techniques that include microarray analysis, pcr and southern blot, or even dna sequencing, and can be used to identify individuals and show relatedness such as in dna fingerprinting. Variation and disease: variations: from genotype to phenotype, most variations in the human genome have no known effect since they tend to mostly occur in noncoding regions of the dna. 3: the physiological phenotype is seen at many different levels in the organism. This means that every person carries two alleles for the gene. One inherited from the mother and one from the father. In most people, these two alleles are both hba alleles, with sequences that code for the functional beta-globin protein. This will alter the hemoglobin structure and disrupt the ability to transport oxygen. As seen in the figure, each colour denotes the relative frequency of each haplotype within the study group that was examined in that region.