BIOLOGY 1A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Gene Expression, Escherichia Coli, Prokaryote

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BIOLOGY 1A03 Full Course Notes
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BIOLOGY 1A03 Full Course Notes
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Favourable temperature and a nutrient-rich environment containing amino acids and carbohydrates is needed for prokaryotic growth. Housekeeping genes: genes that are requires all the time for normal functions: genes that code for structural proteins, rna and dna polymerase, genes that code for ribosomal proteins. Regulated genes: genes that are turned on and off on an as per need basis. When exposed to a changing environment, bacterial cells alter the expression pattern of some genes: regulated genes are transcribed/translated produce enzymes/proteins needed for growth and division. Gene expression in protein coding genes: transcription, translation, protein modification. 3 levels of regulation: transcriptional control: allow for transcription of dna to mrna. Activated by proteins that bind to promoter region and increases binding of rna polymerase: translational control: allows for translation of mrna to protein. In eukaryotes, it is initiated by ribosome binding to 5" cap of mrna.

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