BIOLOGY 1A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Spindle Apparatus, Microtubule, Actomyosin Ring

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BIOLOGY 1A03 Full Course Notes
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BIOLOGY 1A03 Full Course Notes
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Theme 4, module 1-dna replication and mitosis: the cell cycle. Prokaryotic cell division is also reproduction: cells make exact copies of their genomes and segregate one copy of each genome to 2 daughter cells, cell division is asexual production called binary fission. New cell membrane and cell wall form complete division of the 2 halves into identical daughter cells. Satellite stem cells: non-dividing; activated when cells undergo injury: divide to enable muscle regeneration, leads to proliferation, differentiation and fusion of myoblasts into mature myofibers. The eukaryotic cell cycle: g1,g2-gap growth phases, s phase-dna replication. Chromosomes are duplicated into two identical copies called sister chromatids. Sister chromatids attached at centromere are present within nuclear envelope. Centrosomes radiate long microtubules forming mitotic spindle: prometaphase: Microtubules are now able to attach to specialized regions on the centromere called a kinetochore (kinetochore microtubules) Polar microtubules also radiate; these help push poles of the cell away from each other during mitosis: metaphase:

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