BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lipid Bilayer, Isoprene, Cell Membrane

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5 Feb 2013
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Type of
lipid
structure
Structure
Function
Significance/
examples
Fats = fatty
acid +
glycerol,
linked by
ester
linkage
Fats a.ka. Triacylglycerol
o composed of 3 fatty acids and a three - carbon molecule called
glycerol
How do fats form?
o Dehydration reaction between a hydroxyl group of glycerol and
carboxyl group of a fatty acid
o Glycerol and fatty acid are linked by ester linkage
Store energy
Are hydrophobic
Steroids =
four ringed
4 ringed structure + side groups
o Side groups distinguishes it from other steroids
Estrogen and other molecules regulates
sexual development and activity in humans
Cholesterol is used in mammals as a starting
point for synthesis of hormones
Are amphiphatic as has both a polar and a
non polar region
e.g.
cholesterol,
estrogen,
progestrone
and
testosterone
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Cholesterol =
important
component in
plasma
membrane
Phospholipi
ds =
glycerol +
phosphate
group + 2
fatty acids
or isoprene
Composed of a glycerol that is linked to a phosphate group and to either 2
chains of fatty acids or isoprene.
Are amphipathic as has both a polar and a
non polar region which is why they are
present in plasma membrane
Form bilayers in water
NON POLAR = hyrdophobic tails
POLAR = hydrophillic heards
Because of their amphipathic property,
phospholipids do not dissolve in water,
rather form of the 2 structures:
o MICELLES: lipids with short tails form
micelles
o LIPID BILAYERS: lipids with longer tails
form bilayers
These are formed with hydrophillic
heads face water, forcing hydrophobic
e.g. Archaea:
phospholipids
with isoprene
Bacteria and
Eukarya:
phospholipids
with fatty
acids
Bilayer is
dynamic and
not static
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