BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Carbon Cycle, Water Cycle, Photosynthesis

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
McMaster University
Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Chapter 54
Global Biogeochemical Cycles
When nutrients leave on ecosystem and enter another
The movement of ions and molecules among ecosystems links local biogeochemical cycles into
one massive global system.
The Global Water Cycle
Figure 54.13
Water evaporates out of the ocean and precipitates back into it; evaporation exceeds
precipitation.
When this water vapor moves over the continents, it is augmented by water transpired by
plants. Precipitation falls on the continents.
The cycle is completed both by water that moves from the land to the oceans via streams and by
groundwater; water that is found in soild.
Humans are affecting the water cycle in many ways. One of the most direct ways is in
groundwater storage. The water table, the upper limit of saturated soil, is dropping on every
continent.
The Global Carbon Cycle
The global carbon cycle involves the movement of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems, the
oceans, and the atmosphere.
The oceans is by far the largest of these three reservoirs. Carbon moves into and out of the
atmospheric reservoir rapidly via the photosynthesis and respiration of organisms.
Local Carbon Cycle- purple arrows show movement of carbon. Oxygen moves in the opposite
direction as carbon. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere. Respiration,
decomposition and burning take oxygen from the atmosphere.
Carbon Storage- storage of carbon in detritus and then fossil fuels maintains higher
atmospheric O2. Carbon storage in soils now varies globally. Carbon storage has varied over
geological time.
There are high levels of carbon storage in boreal forests and tundras, particularly in wetlands.
Acidity and anoxia slow decomposition.
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas; a gas that traps heat radiated from Earth and keeps it from
being lost to space.
Increases in the amounts of greenhouse gases have the potential to warm Earth’s climate by
increasing the atmosphere’s heat trapping potential.
Human activities such as intensive agriculture, deforestation and burning of fossil fuels have
changed the carbon cycle by adding large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Mangroves
A kind of tropical forest on seacoasts, have very high carbon storage
Continent of Pangea was forming. Climate was tropical, many shallow wetland swamp forests
with periodic flooding. This led to high levels of carbon storage
Carboniferous
Was a period of coal formation
Shallow tropical swamps
Wood was a novel substance, hard to break down because of lignin
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Document Summary

When nutrients leave on ecosystem and enter another. The movement of ions and molecules among ecosystems links local biogeochemical cycles into one massive global system. Water evaporates out of the ocean and precipitates back into it; evaporation exceeds precipitation. When this water vapor moves over the continents, it is augmented by water transpired by plants. The cycle is completed both by water that moves from the land to the oceans via streams and by groundwater; water that is found in soild. Humans are affecting the water cycle in many ways. One of the most direct ways is in groundwater storage. The water table, the upper limit of saturated soil, is dropping on every continent. The global carbon cycle involves the movement of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems, the oceans, and the atmosphere. The oceans is by far the largest of these three reservoirs. Carbon moves into and out of the atmospheric reservoir rapidly via the photosynthesis and respiration of organisms.

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