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1MO3_Chapter 15.docx

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Jon Stone

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Evolution and Human Behaviour
Understanding How We Think
Brain impacts behaviour
Natural selection shapes brain size and abilities
o Rat diet
Evolutionary psychology
o Environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)
o Humans lived in small foraging bands for much of existence
o Explains cheater detection, fears
Evolution and Human Culture
Social facilitation
o Right place, right time to learn
Observational learning
o Imitating what one observes
“Monkeys don’t ape”
o Social facilitation in monkeys
o Observational learning in apes and humans
Culture is an Adaptation
Humans are good at observational learning
Culture helps humans live in wide range of environments
Milk drinking is an adaptation to an environment we cant get nourishment from grass, but we can get milk from animals that can
Culture as Environment
Humans create culture
Culture can create natural selection
o Lactase persistence and lactose tolerance were selected for by a culture of milk drinking
So far as we know, any human raised in a culture performs well in that culture
o No special genetic adaptations to hearing a tonal language or making sounds in that language
Culture Information: Memes
Humans a product of both biology and culture
Memes: culturally transmitted, replicating ideas
o Do not have to be beneficial to spread
o Can unify groups
Why and How Do Organisms Recognize Their Relatives?
o Avoid inbreeding
o Aid their relatives, including parental care
How? One or more of:
o Phenotype matching like me or armpit effect
o Spatial distribution in my nest
o Association familiarity early in development
o Recognition alleles green beard
Evolved Behaviours: Inbreed Avoidance
Many diseases homozygous recessive
o Each person has two to five fatal alleles
o Relatives likely to share same fatal alleles
o Inbreeding reduces fitness
Many primates leave natal group when reaching sexual maturity
o Females in chimps
o Males in Old World monkeys
Human universals
o Inbreeding avoidance
o Psychological mechanism?
Westermarck effect
Adults not attracted to those they grew up with
Raising Children
Parenting difficult work
o Cross-cultural variation in how children raised
o Trade-off between parenting and mating
Parenting Effort and Mating Effort
Hadza, Tanzania
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