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Lecture 10

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Convergent Evolution, Phenetics, Synapomorphy


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Ben Evans
Lecture
10

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Biology 1M03: Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Homology vs. Homoplasy
Learning Objectives
Phylogenetic reconstruction
Distinguishing homolgy and homoplasy
“Whippo” hypothesis
Barcoding life
Introduction to adaptive radiations
Practice Question
Given this phylogeny, who is more closely related to gibbons, orangutans or gorillas?
The phylogeny indicates that gorillas and orangutans are equally related to gibbons!
How do Researchers Estimate Phylogenies?
Researchers analyze characteristics of species (genetic, morphological, behavioural, etc.) to infer
phylogenetic relationships among species
There are four general strategies for using data to estimate trees: the phenetic (distance), cladistic
(maximum parsimony), maximum likelihood, and Bayesian
The cladistic (maximum parsimony) approach to inferring a phylogeny focuses on
synapomorphies, which are shared derived characters
A synapomorphy is a novel trait that a clade of organisms have and that others outside
this clade lack
Phylogenetic Trees

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Choosing Among the Many Possible Trees
Homology: Similarities are Inherited from a Common Ancestor
Homeobox (Hox) Genes Regulate Differentiation within the Adult and Embryo
How do we know that Hox Genes of Humans and Fruit Flies are Homologous?
Similar DNA sequence (including homeobox domain)
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