BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Convergent Evolution, Phenetics, Synapomorphy
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Biology 1M03: Phylogenetic Reconstruction and Homology vs. Homoplasy
○ Phylogenetic reconstruction
○ Distinguishing homolgy and homoplasy
○ “Whippo” hypothesis
○ Barcoding life
○ Introduction to adaptive radiations
○ Given this phylogeny, who is more closely related to gibbons, orangutans or gorillas?
○ The phylogeny indicates that gorillas and orangutans are equally related to gibbons!
How do Researchers Estimate Phylogenies?
○ Researchers analyze characteristics of species (genetic, morphological, behavioural, etc.) to infer
phylogenetic relationships among species
○ There are four general strategies for using data to estimate trees: the phenetic (distance), cladistic
(maximum parsimony), maximum likelihood, and Bayesian
○ The cladistic (maximum parsimony) approach to inferring a phylogeny focuses on
synapomorphies, which are shared derived characters
○ A synapomorphy is a novel trait that a clade of organisms have and that others outside
this clade lack
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Choosing Among the Many Possible Trees
Homology: Similarities are Inherited from a Common Ancestor
Homeobox (Hox) Genes Regulate Differentiation within the Adult and Embryo
How do we know that Hox Genes of Humans and Fruit Flies are Homologous?
○ Similar DNA sequence (including homeobox domain)
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