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Lecture 29

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Environmentalism, EcoloPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Lecture
29

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BIOLOGY1M03Lecture29IntroductiontoEcology
Definitions:
● EnvironmentalScience:
○ Asksaboutbiologyandhowitinteractswithsociology,politics,and
economics
● Environmentalism:
○ Asocialmovementdedicatedtoprotectingtheearth'slifesupport
systemsforusandotherspecies
● Ecology:
○ Studyofthefactorsdeterminingthedistributionandabundanceof
organisms,andalsoaboutflowsofenergyandnutrientsthrough
biologicalsystems
■ Ecologistsshouldbedescriptiveintheirprofessionalcapacity,
notnormative
● OrganismalEcology:
○ Studiestheinteractionsbetweenindividualsandtheirenvironment;
thereisbehaviouralandphysiologicalbranches
● PopulationEcology:
○ Studiestheinteractionsamongindividuals,usuallyofthesame
species,andpopulationgrowthorextinction
■ Forexample,femalesalmoneachproducethousandsofeggs,
whileonly2returntothestreamoftheirbirthtobreed
● PopulationEcology:
○ Studieshowandwhydoespopulationsizechangeovertime
● CommunityEcology:
○ Studiestheinteractionsamongdifferentspecies,howspeciesinteract
andtheconsequences,andwhatmaintainsbiodiversity
● EcosystemEcology
○ Studiestrackingenergyandnutrientflows,andhowtheycycle
throughtheenvironment
■ Allochthonousmeansmovingnutrientsintoanenvironment
fromsomeplaceelse
■ BiologicalPumpiswhenplanktonthattakeupcarboninthe
upperlayeroftheoceanandoncetheyaredead,theydeposit
itatthebottomoftheocean,whichmovescarbonoutofthe
atmosphere
Factors:
● BottomUpFactors:
○ Thingsthatorganismsneedtoconsumeoruseinordertogrow
Light,nutrients,water,temperature
TopDownFactors:
Thingsthatregulatetherateoflossoforganisms(e.g.,predators)
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