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Lecture 30

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 30: Upwelling, Evapotranspiration, EcoloPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Lecture
30

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BIOLOGY1M03Lecture30IntroductiontoEcology(Continued)
AquaticEcosystems:
● Aquaticecosystemsdependontemperature,nutrients,light,andwind
○ Therearemorenutrientsattheocean’sbottom
○ Thereislessoxygenattheocean’sbottom
● Thesurfaceoflakesdoesfluctuate,andtherelativetemperatureofthetop
andbottomlayersdoesswitch,leadingtoseasonaloverturningdueto
differenceindensities
○ Alakemustbesmallandtemperatetoexperienceseasonal
overturning
● Mostfreshwaterecosystemsarelimitedbyphosphorus,whilemarine
systemsarelimitedbyiron,asdeterminedbyexperimentation
● Marineecosystemsexperienceupwellingratherthanoverturning,whichisa
resultofwind
○ Upwelling:Themovementofcoldwaterupwardfromthedeepocean
thatiscausedbywind
● Benthicecosystems(referringtothebottomoftheocean)are
donorcontrolled
○ Whalesprovideidealspotsforbiologicalcommunitiesinthese
ecosystems
■ Ecosystemsondeadwhalesmustbeabletodisperse
offspringontootherdeadwhales
○ Chemoautotrophicorganismsdwellhere;theysynthesizetheirown
foodfromsimplersubstancesusingchemicalsubstratesasasource
ofenergy;theyaretypicallysulfurreducers
TerrestrialEcosystems:
● Abiomeisagroupofecosystemswithsimilarclimatesandorganisms
● Thetwofactorsfordifferentiatingterrestrialecosystemsiswaterand
temperature
○ Lightisnotafactor
● Potentialevapotranspirationistheprocessbywhichplantsevaporatewater
fromtheirleavesandpullwaterandnutrientsfromtheground.
○ Water+Temperature=PotentialEvapotranspiration
○ Waterallowsplantstotransportnutrientsthroughtheirbody
● GrazersandfiresaremissingfromHoldridgezonediagrams
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