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Lecture 32

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 32: Waggle Dance, Proximate And Ultimate Causation, EcoloPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Lecture
32

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BIOLOGY1M03Lecture32BehaviouralEcology
ProximateandUltimateCausation:
● Mostbehaviouralstudiesstartbycarefullyobservingwhatanimalsdoin
responsetospecificproblemsorsituations.Asresearchprogresses,
investigatorsuseexperimentalapproachestoprobetheproximateand
ultimatecausesofbehaviour.
○ Proximatecausation
■ Explainshowactionsoccurintermsneurological,hormonal,
andskeletalmuscularmechanismsinvolved
○ UltimateCausations
■ Explainsevolutionarilywhyactionsoccur
● Itisimportanttorecognizethateffortstoexplainbehaviourattheproximate
andultimatelevelsarecomplementary.Tounderstandwhatanorganismis
doing,biologistswanttoknowhowthebehaviourhappensandwhy.
ModelsofCommunication:
● Someanimalsundergoacousticcommunication,somevisual.
● Oneofthemostgeneralobservationsaboutcommunicationisthatthetypeof
signalusedbyanorganismcorrelateswithitshabitat.
○ Eachmodeofcommunicationhasadvantagesanddisadvantages.
WaggleDanceCommunication:
● Therearetwophasesofabee’swaggledance
○ WagglePhase
■ Duringthisphase,thebeemovesforwardwiththedirectionof
thelineindicatingthefoodsourcedirection.Awaggleina
straightupwarddirectionindicatesthesourcesisdirectlyinline
withtheSun
■ Thedistanceofawaggleinabeeisthedistanceofthefood,
whiletheanglestatesthedirectionofthefood
○ ReturnPhase
■ Duringthereturnphase,theBeereturnstoitsstartingposition
inaloopeithertotheleftortotheright,formingafigure8
pattern.Upto100repetitionscanoccur.
KeyConcepts:
● Biologistsanalyzebehaviourattheproximateandultimatelevelsthegenetic
andphysiologicalmechanismsandhowtheyaffectfitness
● Individualscanbehaveinawiderangeofways;whichbehaviouroccurs
dependsoncurrentconditions
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