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Lecture 33

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 33: Reciprocal Altruism, Ecolo, Mate ChoicePremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Lecture
33

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BIOLOGY1M03Lecture33BehaviouralEcology(Continued)
Cooperation:
● Altruism
○ Behaviourthathasafitnesscosttotheindividualexhibitingthe
behaviourandafitnessbenefittotherecipientofthebehaviour
○ Formaltermforselfsacrificingbehaviour
○ Decreasesanindividual’sabilitytoproduceoffspring,buthelpsothers
producemoreoffspring
○ Existenceisparadoxical
ReciprocalAltruism:
● ReciprocalAltruism
○ Anexchangeoffitnessbenefitsthatareseparatedintime
○ Thesealtruistshelpindividualswhohaveeitherhelpedtheminthe
pastorarelikelytohelptheminthefuture
○ Amongvervetmonkeys,individualsaremostlikelytogroomunrelated
individualsthathavegroomedorhelpedtheminthepast
○ Vampirebatsaremostlikelytodonatebloodmealstononkinthat
havepreviouslysharedfoodwiththem
○ Reciprocalaltruismisalsowidelyinvokedasanexplanationforthe
helpfulandcooperativebehaviourcommonlyobservedamong
unrelatedhumans
KeyConcepts:
● Biologistsanalyzebehaviourattheproximateandultimatelevelsthegenetic
physiologicalmechanismsandhowtheyaffectfitness
○ Attheproximatelevel,experimentsandobservationsfocuson
understandinghowspecificgeneproducts,neuronactivity,and
hormonalsignalscausebehaviour
○ Attheultimatelevel,researchersseektounderstandtheadaptive
significanceofbehaviour,orhowitenablesindividualstosurviveand
reproduce
○ Bycombiningproximateandultimateviewpoints,biologistscanseeka
comprehensiveunderstandingofhowandwhyanimalsdowhatthey
do
● Individualscanbehaveinawiderangeofways;whichbehaviouroccurs
dependsoncurrentconditions
○ Foraginginwhitefrontedbeeeaters,matechoiceinbarnswallows,
andtheonsetofsexualbehaviourinAnolislizards
■ Allexamplesofflexible,conditiondependentbehaviours
triggeredbychangingenvironmentalstimuli.
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