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Lecture 34

BIOLOGY 1M03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 34: Population Ecology, EcoloPremium


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jon Stone
Lecture
34

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BIOLOGY1M03Lecture34PopulationEcology
KeyConcepts:
● PopulationEcology:
○ Thestudyofhowandwhythenumberofindividualsinapopulation
changesovertime
● Lifetablessummarizehowlikelyindividualsofeachageclassinapopulation
willsurviveandreproduce
● Researchersobserveawidevarietyofpatternswhentracking
○ Changesinpopulationsizeovertime
○ Growthratesthatslowwhenpopulationsareathighdensity
○ Regularcycles
○ GrowthIndependenceofpopulationsizes
● Datafrompopulationecologystudieshelpbiologistsevaluateprospectsfor
endangeredspeciesanddesigneffectivemanagementstrategies
○ Aswellastopredictchangesinhumanpopulations
● Apopulationconsistingprimarilyofyoungindividualswithhighsurvivaland
reproductiverates,thesizewillincreaseovertime.
○ Ifapopulationcompriseschieflyoldindividualswithlowreproductive
ratesandlowsurvivalrates,thenitwilldecline.
■ Populationsdeclineduetodeathsandemigration
■ Populationsgrowduetobirthsandimmigration
PopulationGrowth:
● Apopulation’sgrowthrateisthechangeinthenumberofindividualsinthe
population(deltaN)perunittime(deltat).
○ Ifnoimmigrationoremigrationisoccurring,thenapopulation’sgrowth
rateisequaltothenumberofindividuals(N)inthepopulationtimes
thedifferencebetweenthebirthrateperindividual(b)anddeathrate
perindividual(d).
■ Thedifferencebetweenthebirthrateanddeathrateper
individualiscalledthepercapitarateofincrease,andis
symbolizedr
● Percapitameans“foreachindividual”
EndangeredSpecies:
● Whendesigningprogramstosavespeciesthreatenedwithextinction,
conservationistsdrawheavilyonconceptswithtechniquesfrompopulation
ecology.
● Makingpopulationprojectionsrequires2questions
○ Howmanyadultssurvivetoeachageclasseachyear?
○ Howmanyoffspringareproducedbyeachadultageclasseachyear
overthecourseofseveralyears?
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