Cenozoic era (65 million years ago-present) spectacular radiaion of mammals following exincion of dinos, opened up ecological opportuniies. Coupled, probably linked with with lowering plants (angiosperms: angiosperms are vascular, lowering plants, most have endosperm within seeds (loud is made from endosperm of wheat, produce fruit. Seeds are major innovaion, before plants reproduced with spores. Spores don"t have much food resource, as seeds do. Gymnosperms produce ovals that lack a cover, name means naked. Angiosperms have cover, which could be fruit. Some seeds need to pass through digesive tract. Not irst to establish relaionship: ex some pines require animals to open up pine cones. Primates had to compete with other animals for angiosperm resources. In primates binocular vision, grasping hands/feet, nails instead of claws, changes in deniion enhances primates to get food resources. Analyze raio of oxygen isotopes in data from ocean cores. Isotopes are variants of elements with diferent number of neutrons in the nucleus.