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Cristae for surface area
varying morphology, size, number, location depending upon cell type
typically long thin tubules; tethered to cytoskeleton
dynamic: constantly fusing/dividing (so mtDNA can recombine)
specialized pumps and carriers for inner membrane
Endosymbiont Hypothesis: double-membrane (one mt, one plamsic)
prokaryotic translation mech.
unique genetic code
Functions: ATP (TCA, oxphos)
FA metabolism (B-oxidation)
developmental pathways (cell fate)
mtDNA: 16kb easily sequenced
13 proteins (of 1000 total) rest must be imported from cytosol
slightly different genetic code between organisms
multi-subunit complexes encoded both by mtDNA and nucleus