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Chem 1A03 FULL notes

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McMaster University
Jeff Landry

Topic 11MeasurementData ProcessingErrorSystematic errorReading meniscus from sides and not middle like its supposed to be readPoor calibrationAccuracy limitsInterpretation of endpointsPoor use of equipment no zeroing balanceRandom errorEqual probability of reading being too highlowoVariations in glassware volume bc tempIncreasing trialsincreased precisionless random errorPrecisionhow close measurements of same trial areAccuracy how close measurements are to actualUncertaintyAbsolute uncertainty1 sig digRounded to same place as last calculated digitDigital DevicesmallestincrementAnalog device smallestincrement2Relative Uncertaintyabsolute uncertainty measuredvaluex100PropagatingErrorAdding add absolute uncertaintiesMultiplyingDividingaddrelativeuncertaintiesconverttoabsoluteAveraging average absoluteTopic 1 StoichiometryAvogadros ConstantNAAtomic Massmass of atom of specific element Expressed in amu atomic mass units12Arelative atomic massin comparison to C12 amuroNo unitsbc avg of all isotopes of elementMolecular Masssum of masses of molecule12Mrelative molecular massin comparison to Cno unitsrEmpirical Formula simplest ratio of atoms in compoundMolecular Formula multiple of empirical formula contains whole number of empirical formulasSolute substance that dissolves smaller amountSolvent into which dissolved higher amountSolution homogeneous mixture w 2substancesPercentage yield actualtheoretical x 100Atomic MassRelative abundanceof each isotopeMultiply decimal percent by each isotopes massAvg atomic masssum ofx Mx N of ANumber of Number of molsParticlesMassAtomsAtomsComposition of CompoundEmpirical formula wholeratio of atomsoSimplifiedMole ratiodivide actual mols by smallestof molesIf ratiohas decimal 0208no roundingoMultiply by whole integer to get lowest whole Melement composition x 100McompoundSolutionsSolubility amount of certain solute that can dissolve in given volume of solventSaturated solutionno more solute can dissolveoDiff saturation levels fr diff substancesConcentrationamount of solute per quantity of solventoMass g volume mLoMassmassoVolumevolumeMolar concentrationmolarityoMols of soluteVolume solution LoC nV3o01 M01 moldmSolubility of Ionic CompoundsIons w high chargeslow solubilityoBc chargehigh force holding ions togetherSmaller ions small radiuslow solubilityoBond more closely bond btwn particles strongerDD reactionsmight be precipitation reactionsoMake insoluble productIf precipitategas produced insolublerxnoOtherwise free ions floating in wateroWhen something dissolves ions break apartSolublesolublesolubleoNt chemical reactionoOnly solublesolubleinsolublerxnStoichChemical EquationsLimiting reactantoSmallest stoichiometric quantityoReactant that finishes firstTo find get net ionic eqnUse it to find mols of limiting reactantExcess reactantoLeft over to make moreoNything thats not limitingKinetic Molecular Theory of GasesHigh translational energyfree movementHigh disorderHigh compressibilityWeak attractionKinetic Molecular TheoryVolume of gas molecule disregarded compared to volume of containerNo attractiverepulsive forcesMove randomly in all directions in straight linesInelastic collisionkeep on colliding with same EKinetic E proportionate to tempoTempmeasure of avg kinetic E2oGrahams Law of diffusion KE05mvStandard TempPressure STP P1013 kPa T273KStandardAmbientTemperaturePressureSATPP100kPaT298KIdealGasLawMolar volumevolume occupied by 1 mole gasoMolar volumeVn1 mole of gas1 mole any other gasAvogadrosLawnVnV1122oLaw of combined volumesvolume ratio same as mol ratiooIf temppressure conditions sameall gases in eqnvolumes stoichiometrically proportionateIdeal gasSTP 1 mol occupies 224 LPVnRTDPMRTDaltons Law of Partial PressureTotal gas pressure of all gas pressuresoFound my collecting gases over wateroPPPgaswetgasH20GasesPressure
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