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Chemistry 1A03.docx

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McMaster University
David Brock

Chemistry 1Lecture 13 review chapter 146Periodic tablePeriodsHorizontal GroupsfamiliesVerticalAlkali metals Alkaline earth metalsChalcogens Halogens Noble gasesstaircaseSeparates metals left and nonmetals rightMetalloids adjacent toOxidation statesActual charge of a monoatomic ionIe Cl 1Oxidation numberHypothetical charge of an atom in a moleculepolyatomic moleculeIe CO c4 o2ea2General guidelinesOxidation number of an element not 0ionGroup 1 metals1Group 2 metals2Oxygen21 peroxidesFluorine1 very electronegative OF o2f21NomenclatureSimple ionsChemistry 2Ionic table 33Binary molecular compounds table 34Polyatomic ions table 35Oxyacids and oxyanionsNormalate ic1Perate peric1ite ous2Hypoite hypoousMoles and molar mass 231N Avogadros number6022x10 molecules x molaAmu atomic mass unitsRepresentation of structuresCationsmanionsx formula unit mxTotal charge is balanced in ionic compoundEmpirical formulaLowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compoundCho2Molecular formulaActual ratio of atoms in compoundCHO242Structural formulaActual structure can have same molecular formulaCan show resonance structuresIe Glucose and galactoseChemistry 3Condensed structural formulaCHCOOH3Lineangle stick formulaBall and stick molecular modelNot realisticSpace filling modelEx BenzeneEmpirical CHMolecular CH66Structural Condensed CH6Lineangle stick formulaIsotopesSame protons atomic number different number of neutrons atomic massSame chemical propertiesAEZZ atomic number PA atomic mass NPWater H AM 1deuterium H AM 2tritium H AM 3Application of isotopesIsotopes have natural abundances samples that show variation from natural isotope abundance can provide key informationHeavier isotopes of water and its movement towards the north pole is dependent of the temperature of the earthWarmer temperature allow more heavy isotopes to be deposited at the polesTherefore analyzing oxygen isotope ratios can allow one to deduce the temperature at the timeExtensive properties
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