Class Notes (836,580)
Canada (509,856)
Chemistry (543)
CHEM 1AA3 (67)
Lecture

March .11, 2013.docx

7 Pages
88 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 1AA3
Professor
Jeff Landry
Semester
Winter

Description
Chem Organic Compounds: Medicines  Tamoxifen—functional groups are ether, amine  Viagara--- used for  Lipitor—used to control cholesterol levels Organic Compounds: Drugs - Stanozolol  Ring structure , 4 rings base structure  A steroid Organic Compounds: Industrial Chemicals  Indigo dye—plant dye o Natural vs synthetic o Vitamin c -- syntehized from lab and from natural is the same thing o Natural doesn’t necessary o Add acetyl groups, pain releaving  Aspartame : o Amino acid used to build other proteins o Brain cancer—fed it to rats and got them to eat, and cut other nutritional food, fed just that in large amounts o Cant cook with aspartame—not heat stable o Splenda—taste like sugar because its made from sugar o Subsitution o Splenda –and more sweetthan sugar Made from sugar—so can be heated  Cocaine  Quinine: o In tonic water o Used to treat malaria ICLICKER ANSER –c *** Amide needs to ahve a carbonyl groups bside the nitrogen, needs to have an oxygen Alkenes  Have double bonds  Cnh2n  Can also write 1-butene as but-1-ene  When naming double bonds, find longerst chain with double bond, double bond has higher priority Mutiple Covalent Bonds  Hybrid orbitals—needs more bonds to occur, evidence is the angles, cant just be p and s orbitals, o Not a transformer, energy of s and 3p’s mix together at once and form a new system o Alkene –sp3 o All have same amount of energy so will repel each toher with same force and spread out at same angle o Repel equally so they spread out equally o 2p –/ ---- unhybridized orbital o Sp2--///--- hybridized orbital Sp2 Hybrid Orbitals  One pi orbital left over, p orbital is perpieniduclar to trigonal planar  Extra p gets used, extra p orbital used to form seond bond – 2 p orbital bond by side by side  N-bond n ---sigma  Double bond side by side overlap o—pie bond  Electrons could be located anywhere in p-orbital on two lobes  In the middle --- there is a sigma bond (diagram pie bond, gap between them Ethene  Alkene things get held in place no rotation  They have to be together so it prevents rotation Recals: Alkekens ahve restricted rotation:  Geometic isomers: barbies arms are stuck in front or behind, relative positions to each other, attached in the same spot  Structural isomer—all parts are same but are arranged in a different configuration, all the same parts but are  Oleic acid—cis—same side  Eladiac acid – trans—opposite sides Take-home practise:  B has higher melting point , has higher melting point, larger surface area to create intermolecular forces, LONDON forces, act like adding together, stacking ontop of each other is stronger,  Bottom one has higher melting point because of its linear symmetrical structure The E, Z system of Nomenclature  Neither – which is cis /trans--- answer: neither  Cis.trans need to be taking about on c chains, not other functional groups, if carbons are on ssame side would be cis but if not carbon its NOT CIS OR TRANS E,Z nomenclature is used if its not CIS or TRANS5  E stands for entgegen  Z stands for zussamen  E,Z , work by prioptiesies  Larger the atomic number the higher priority  Break the molecule to left and right hand sides  So on the left side, cloriine has higher priory than F,  And  If on the same side, higher priprites so on top or botoom than Z (zammme side)  If on opposite side – like one at top and  Z (on same side )  Put that before the name soo E, name  From first carbon – you ahve attached to it a carbon and chlorine,chloride has higher priority than C ,doesn’t matter about larger branch  From the other carbon in double bond- the longer branch has higher priority  Take home practise  If the two on the lft or right side are the same , then you look at the higher branch or what is attached to it , the ether group is higher priority  On the right, the benzene has 2 other carbons attached while hte methyl group has 2 hydrogen attached so the benzene has higher priority  When you see taht double bond, you count aht twice added on twice like for c=o... El Z Take-Home practice  Flmedimin not taken by pregnant women because the isomer, causes babies to born IClicker— Organic Cmpounds: biological  11-cis-retinal Take home practise  Count the c in the ring to get 9 , start counting from the ring where there is a double bond or where the two methyl groups are sticking up Chemical Reactions:  Lone pair electrons could be attracted to things with strong enough Chemcil Reactions  Lewis Acid base chemistry  Nucleophile has protons looking  Elctrophile –looking for something negative so electron  Positive things are attracted to negative things Chemical Reactions  Orientation matters  Have ot have right alignment Mehanism:  Use curly arrow --- flow of electrons  Doble haeed arrow – is equilibrium Mechanism (continued)  Arrows start from source to where its going – being donated to Addition Reactions  Br are added to opposite sides of aleken (composition is important)  Adds on one side and other  Addition reactions --- hydrogen gets added to one side and Br gets added to other o The first one would be formed, because the rich get richer : o Markovnikov’s rule: the H atom ends up attached to the C atom Explanation o fMarkonik’s Rule  Electonrs in double pond – bromine will take H away from the  H+ is going to look for electrons and it will find those in second bond  When H bonds, the double bond breaks and form a bond with H which results with an ion o You get 2 types of carbon 2* is less stable than o Tertiary (3˚ carboacation) has 3 carbons attached to it  Pie is more reactive than sigma bond  if unstable than reforms the alkene which it started with, it would form the double bond again because it is not stable  therefore you only see one product being produced Carbocation Stability  the more carbons taht are attached to carbocation (one with charge ), the more stable the carocation is  carbocation--- one with + charge  its earier to do things when your sharing the load  when you ahve carbocation formed, because it is positive its going to be pulling them toards it to balance ,, its not easy to pull them towards the + charge, so have it sh  the more carbonds that are present, can help donate their electrons and offset , and make it more stable  the idea that electron donate from neighbouring atoms to stabilize carboacation ---to share the load to help minize how positive the central positive charge  the botoom one its hard ICLICKEr 4—answer A Hydration Reaction:  when we’re attaching water,  markovnik’s rule –carbocation formed  so table carbocation where H goes onto the right carbon  the forward reaction  concentration acid is elimation  concentrated sucks things out  dilute would add Hydration also follows Markovnik;s rule  acid will propionate  acid is where proton is coming from , its not coming from water  proton came from acid and not water  water doesn’t have charge  acid catalyst is suded than reformed  catalysts casue a reaction to occur – catalyst doesn’t participate by straining bonds but
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 1AA3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit