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CHEM 1E03 (42)

Thermal Balance

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Douglas Davidson

(1) Changes in Thermal Balance  Respiration + high growth rate increase heat  Heat excess transferred to cooler maternal blood by heat gradient  Mother loses this excess heat from her body (2) Changes in Cardiac Output and Blood Volume and their Significance  High growth rate of fetus, placenta, maternal tissues (not just breast and uterus)  This increases O2 consumption/respiration  As maternal muscles have to work harder to move her increased size  Increases CARDIAC OUTPUT (= STROKE VOLUME x HEART RATE) o Heart beats faster o Increase in stroke volume o Increase in cardiac muscle / heart chambers enlarge / output increases by 40%  Increase in maternal blood volume o Changes in volume of plasma > increase in number of red blood cells Birth  Fetus lies with its head down against stretched cervix  Weak contraction of uterus every ≈30min / increase in strength and frequency  Caused by hormone oxytoccin secreted by posterior pituitary gland  When cervix is fully dilated  Expulsion of baby by contractions of mother's abdominal muscles o Umbilical cord shuts down, isolating baby from mother o Rises CO2 content of the blood / stimulates baby's first breath  Expulsion of placenta → ≈30min after birth o Pregnancy lasts ≈38 weeks from implantation, 40 weeks from last period Hormonal Changes During And After Pregnancy Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin hCG Hormone  Secreted by trophoblast and developing placenta  Maintains corpus luteum past the time it normally disintegrates o Endometrium is maintained and menstruation does not occur o Female sex hormones still at high level  Basis for pregnancy test →
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