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07-09 - Acidity, Saturation, Acids, Bases, Alkanes, Alkyl Substituents, Rotamers (Conformers).docx

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Jeff Landry

Acidity  Acidity ↑ with: 1. Increasing size of A (H-A bond gets weaker, so more reactive, down the PT) 2. Increasing electronegativity (moving to the right in PT) 3. Resonance (more resonance structures of conjugate base → more stable conjugate base → equilibrium lies further to the products → more acidic)  Degree of Unsaturation: o Degree of how many bonds/rings there could be o If saturated, #Hydrogens = 2(#Carbons) + 2 – #Halogens + #Nitrogens  N H 2N +C2 – N + X N  More negative pKa value → more acidic (equilibrium more towards the products)  Memorize pKa of o H SO (Sulfuric Acid) = -5 2 4 o H O 2 15.7 + o H O 3Hydronium) = -1.7 o CH CO3H (Acetic Acid) = 4.7 o CH (M4thane) (weakest acid) = 50 Lewis Acids and Bases  Lewis Acids: Electron deficient  Lewis Bases: Lone electron pairs Alkanes  Hydrocarbons without functional groups  Butane (C 4 )10 o Straight Chain: CH CH3CH 2H 2 3 o Line notation: /\/\/\/\/ o Branched (2-Methylpropane): flux-capacitor-esque trigonal planar thingy o /\/\/\/ and trigonal planar flux-capacitor thing are constitutional isomers  Define # of “cyclic” by how many bonds you have to break to get to a completely acyclic structure  Saturated if Alkane is CnH 2n+2  Cyclic if Alk
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