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CHEM 2OA3 (54)


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McMaster University
Paul Harrison

Podcast 1 SeparationIsolationPurificationTypes of drugsMajority of pharmaceuticals sold today are the result of a lead isolated from natureSyntheticCreated via chemical reactionsSemisyntheticIsolated from natural sources but modifiedEg aspirin acetylsalicylic acid replace phenol group bitter taste of salicylic acid with an acetyl esterIn the body the ester is cleaved and salicylic acid is reformedDirect natural productsDirectly isolated from natural sourcesExtractionPull compound from one phase to another phaseUsually between aqueous phase to organic phase or a polar phase and nonpolar phaseBenzeneSolventsElutopic seriesShows relative polarity of solventsPicking solventsLike dissolves likeDichloromethaneDepends on the polarity of the compound that is to be extractedEg fats will dissolve in nonpolar and salts will dissolve in polar phaseSolvents with different enough polarities will separateCompounds generally partition themselves in many solvents but one may be favouredExtract compounds into the favoured solventPerforming extraction several times allows for higher yield Eg water will create a layer above dichloromethaneSeparatory funnelPut both solvents inEg water and dichloromethaneAdd the mixture containing the compoundPut the stopper in and shake wellRelease pressure if solvents are volatileEg dichloromethanePour out lower layer and stop at the liquid liquid interfaceCollect two layers in different flasksPerform sequential extractionsPartition coefficient KEquilibrium constantsolventAKsolventBDistillationMain technique for purifying volatile liquidsVapourize a material with lower boiling point by heating it and subsequently condensing the vapour back into liquidTemperatureVolatile liquid boiling pointtemperatureother liquidSimple DistillationUsed when boiling points are far apartFractional DistillationUsed when boiling points are closeEg oil containing varying chain lengthsLimited to compounds with reasonable boiling pointsIf the boiling point is too high the compound is destroyed in the distillation process
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