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Chapter 7 Substitution Reactions.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHEM 2OA3
Professor
Harald Stover
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7 Substitution ReactionsBernard HoNovember 27 201171 Introduction to Substitution ReactionsSubstitution reactions involve exchange of one functional group for anotherIn every substitution reaction there is an electrophile and a nucleophileElectrophiles in substitution reactions are often called substrates and must contain a leaving group which is a group capable of separating from the substrateLeaving group serves two critical functionsoWithdraws electron density via induction rendering adjacent carbon electrophilicoCan stabilize any negative charge that may develop as a result of leaving group separating from substrateHalogens are common leaving groups72 Alkly HalidesHalogenated organic compounds are commonly used as electrophiles in substitution reactionsNaming Halogenated Organic CompoundsoFour steps used to name alkanes same for halogensIdentify and name parentIdentify and name substituentsNumber parent chain and assign a locant to each substituentAssemble substituent alphabetically oHalogens are simply treated as substituents and receive the names fluoro chloro bromo iodooRemember that parent is longest chain and should be numbered so that first substituent receives lower numberoWhen a chirality center is present in compound configuration must be indicated at beginning of name oIUPAC also recognizes common names for many halogenated organic compoundsSystematic name treats a halogen as a substituent calling compound a haloalkaneCommon name treats compound as an alkyl substituent connected to a halide and compound is called an alkly halide or an organohalideStructure of Alkyl HalidesoEach carbon atom is described in terms of its proximity to halogen oAlpha position is carbon atom connected directly to halogen while beta positions are carbon atoms connected to alpha position oAn alkyl halide will have only oneposition but there can be as many as threepositionsoAlkyl halides are classified as primary secondary or tertiary based on number of alkly groups connected toposition
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